The Saccharomyces cerevisiae calponin/transgelin homolog Scp1 functions with fimbrin to regulate stability and organization of the actin cytoskeleton.
ABSTRACT Calponins and transgelins are members of a conserved family of actin-associated proteins widely expressed from yeast to humans. Although a role for calponin in muscle cells has been described, the biochemical activities and in vivo functions of nonmuscle calponins and transgelins are largely unknown. Herein, we have used genetic and biochemical analyses to characterize the budding yeast member of this family, Scp1, which most closely resembles transgelin and contains one calponin homology (CH) domain. We show that Scp1 is a novel component of yeast cortical actin patches and shares in vivo functions and biochemical activities with Sac6/fimbrin, the one other actin patch component that contains CH domains. Purified Scp1 binds directly to filamentous actin, cross-links actin filaments, and stabilizes filaments against disassembly. Sequences in Scp1 sufficient for actin binding and cross-linking reside in its carboxy terminus, outside the CH domain. Overexpression of SCP1 suppresses sac6Delta defects, and deletion of SCP1 enhances sac6Delta defects. Together, these data show that Scp1 and Sac6/fimbrin cooperate to stabilize and organize the yeast actin cytoskeleton.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Bruce L Goode, Jul 02, 2014
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ABSTRACT: The actin cytoskeleton exists in a dynamic equilibrium with monomeric and filamentous states of its subunit protein actin. The spatial and temporal regulation of actin dynamics is critical to the many functions of actin. Actin levels are remarkably constant, suggesting that cells have evolved to function within a narrow range of actin concentrations. Here we report the results of screens in which we have increased actin levels in strains deleted for the ~4800 nonessential yeast genes using a technical advance called selective ploidy ablation. We detected 83 synthetic dosage interactions with actin, 78 resulted in reduced growth, whereas in 5 cases overexpression of actin suppressed the growth defects caused by the deleted genes. The genes were highly enriched in several classes, including transfer RNA wobble uridine modification, chromosome stability and segregation, cell growth, and cell division. We show that actin overexpression sequesters a limited pool of eEF1A, a bifunctional protein involved in aminoacyl-transfer RNA recruitment to the ribosome and actin filament cross-linking. Surprisingly, the largest class of genes is involved in chromosome stability and segregation. We show that actin mutants have chromosome segregation defects, suggesting a possible role in chromosome structure and function. Monomeric actin is a core component of the INO80 and SWR chromatin remodeling complexes and the NuA4 histone modification complex, and our results suggest these complexes may be sensitive to actin stoichiometry. We propose that the resulting effects on chromatin structure can lead to synergistic effects on chromosome stability in strains lacking genes important for chromosome maintenance.G3-Genes Genomes Genetics 03/2013; 3(3):553-61. DOI:10.1534/g3.113.005579 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Asymmetric cell division, which includes cell polarization and cytokinesis, is essential for generating cell diversity during development. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproduces by asymmetric cell division, and has thus served as an attractive model for unraveling the general principles of eukaryotic cell polarization and cytokinesis. Polarity development requires G-protein signaling, cytoskeletal polarization, and exocytosis, whereas cytokinesis requires concerted actions of a contractile actomyosin ring and targeted membrane deposition. In this chapter, we discuss the mechanics and spatial control of polarity development and cytokinesis, emphasizing the key concepts, mechanisms, and emerging questions in the field.Genetics 06/2012; 191(2):347-87. DOI:10.1534/genetics.111.132886 · 4.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the proteome of proliferating bovine satellite cells from longissimus dorsi, deep pectoral and semitendinosus muscle depots which had been subjected to hormonal deprivation or addition in culture. For hormone deprivation or addition studies, the cells were either grown in 10% charcoal-dextran stripped fetal bovine serum (CD-FBS) or in 10% FBS supplemented medium. Further to analyze the effect of insulin like growth factor (IGF-1) and testosterone (TS), the cells were grown in 10% CD-FBS containing IGF-1 (10 ng/ml) or TS (10 nM). Results have shown that hormone deprivation had a negative impact on proliferation of the cells from each of the muscle depots. In case of IGF-1 and TS addition, the proliferation levels were low compared with that of the cells grown in 10% FBS. Hence, to gain the insights of the proteins that are involved in such divergent levels of proliferation, the proteome of such satellite cells proliferating under the above mentioned conditions were analyzed using 2D-DIGE and MALDI-ToF/ToF. Thirteen proteins during hormone deprivation and nine proteins from hormone addition were found to be differentially expressed in all the cultures of the cells from the three depots. Moreover, the results highlighted in this study offer a role for each differentially expressed protein with respect to its effect on positive or negative regulation of cell proliferation.12/2009; 51(6):459-470. DOI:10.5187/JAST.2009.51.6.459