Analysis of large structural changes of the factor VIII gene, involving intron 1 and 22, in severe hemophilia A

Institute of Hematology and Immunology, National Medical Center, Diószegi út 64, Budapest H-1113, Hungary.
Haematologica (Impact Factor: 5.81). 08/2003; 88(7):778-84.
Source: PubMed


Hemophilia A (HA), the deficiency of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII), is the most common, sex-linked inherited bleeding disorder. The disease is caused by FVIII gene intron 22 inversion in approximately 50% of the patients, and by intron 1 inversion in 5% of the patients with severe HA. Both inversions occur as a result of intrachromosomal recombination between homologous regions, in intron 1 or 22, and their extragenic copy located telomeric to the FVIII gene. The goal of the present study was to analyze the presence of large structural changes in the FVIII gene in patients with severe hemophilia A.
We studied 104 unrelated, severe HA-patients or obligate carriers for the presence of intron 22 and intron 1 inversions by Southern blotting, long-distance polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and simple PCR.
We found altered intron 22 restriction profiles by Southern analyses in 58 cases: 43 type 1, 11 type 2 inversions and 4 unusual patterns. Upon further examination of the last 4 cases, large deletions involving intron 22 were demonstrated in two cases. In the remaining two patients extra homologous regions were detected by Southern analysis, and long-distance PCR showed the presence of unaltered intra- and extragenic copies together with one inversion-affected copy, suggesting that an additional intronic fragment participated in the inversion process and was inserted in the genome. During screening for intron 1 inversion among 43 patients, who were intron 22 inversion negative, we identified only wild type individuals.
The relatively large proportion of unusual patterns further supports the observation that the structure of FVIII intron 22 represents a hot spot for large gene rearrangements with various mechanisms, while intron 1 inversion seems to be not common in Hungary.

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    • "Among the identified intron 22 inversion types, the type I inversion was the most frequent in our patients (families 10, 11 and 12), which correlates with what previously has been reported in the literature [16]. The type II inversion was identified in one patient (family 9) and a novel atypical pattern (family 8) with 3 bands (18 kb, 15.5 kb and 14 kb), since the amplification of exons 22 and 23 gave the expected size this atypical pattern may be explained by a deletion of 2 kb in the INT22-h1 or in the INT22-h3 homologous regions (Table 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Hemophilia A is an X linked recessive hemorrhagic disorder caused by mutations in the F8 gene that lead to qualitative and/or quantitative deficiencies of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). Molecular diagnosis of hemophilia A is challenging because of the high number of different causative mutations that are distributed throughout the large F8 gene. Molecular studies of these mutations are essential in order to reinforce our understanding of their pathogenic effect responsible for the disorder. Aim In this study we have performed molecular analysis of 28 Tunisian hemophilia A patients and analyzed the F8 mutation spectrum. METHODS: We screened the presence of intron 22 and intron 1 inversion in severe hemophilia A patients by southern blotting and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection of point mutations was performed by dHPLC/sequencing of the coding F8 gene region. We predict the potential functional consequences of novel missense mutations with bioinformatics approaches and mapping of their spatial positions on the available FVIII 3D structure. RESULTS: We identified 23 different mutations in 28 Tunisian hemophilia A patients belonging to 22 unrelated families. The identified mutations included 5 intron 22 inversions, 7 insertions, 4 deletions and 7 substitutions. In total 18 point mutations were identified, of which 9 are located in exon 14, the most mutated exonic sequence in the F8 gene. Among the 23 mutations, 8 are novel and not deposited in the HAMSTeRS database nor described in recently published articles. CONCLUSION: The mutation spectrum of Tunisian hemophilia A patients is heterogeneous with the presence of some characteristic features. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
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    • "It demonstrates that the chromosomal instability in Xq28 associated with the intron 22 homology regions may not only involve deletions but even additional insertions. Several independent reports of unusual patterns in diagnostic Southern blots or long-range PCR [summarized in (Andrikovics et al., 2003)] have led to the assumption that a number of patients may carry both an inversion and a deletion in F8 ( " rare inversion type " ). In a pilot study of DNA samples from 32 patients with severe hemophilia A carrying large deletions, we identified three cases with similar patterns (C. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recurrent int22h-related inversions in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8) are the most common cause of severe hemophilia A. Such inversions have repeatedly been hypothesized to be associated with concomitant deletions that are responsible for an increased risk of immune responses against therapeutic exogenous factor VIII. However, exact DNA breakpoints have not yet been reported. In a patient with persistent factor VIII-inactivating antibodies, molecular analysis of F8 including Southern Blot, long-range PCR and primer walking techniques revealed a combination of an int22h2-related inversion, deletion of exons 16-22 and insertion of a duplicated part of the X-chromosomal MPP1 gene. This novel genomic rearrangement was also detectable in the patient's mother, but absent in both maternal grandparents. The genetic defect most likely originated from a complex X-chromosomal recombination event during spermatogenesis due to the formation of a DNA loop stabilized by Alu and LINE repeat elements. Elucidation of such combined mutations may allow early identification of patients at high risk of developing factor VIII-neutralizing antibodies and will help to understand the mechanisms behind gross chromosomal rearrangements causing hemophilia A and other diseases.
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    ABSTRACT: Carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis constitute an important component of haemophilia management. Recent advances in molecular biology allows us to use the tools of molecular biology to give such a diagnosis early in the pregnancy with a much higher confidence. Because of lyonisation, diagnosis of a carrier by factor assay is imperfect and hence lacks sensitivity. Molecular diagnosis in such cases is robust.There are several techniques by which this diagnosis can be made.Though the preferred method is to do direct mutation studies, yet the complexities of factor VIII and factor IX genes may not make this approach easy or cost effective. Hence depending on the capability of the laboratory, education status of the family, availability of data through several generations and economic situation of the country, a combination of these techniques need to be adopted for optimum results. These techniques are broadly classified as indirect techniques through linkage analysis or direct detection of affected genes by a combination of screening and sequencing techniques. Occasionally in our country even all the gene based techniques may prove inadequate and we may have to give prenatal diagnosis by antigen and clotting activity assay of the defective factor by cordocentesis between 17-20 weeks of gestation. For any prenatal diagnosis of haemophilia, prior detection of fetal sex either by USG or by molecular technique is necessary to decide whether any further work up is necessary or not? The present article describes various algorithms of carrier detection prenatal diagnosis of haemophilia that was found suitable in our country.
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