Genome-wide expression analysis of mouse liver reveals CLOCK-regulated circadian output genes.
ABSTRACT CLOCK is a positive component of a transcription/translation-based negative feedback loop of the central circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in mammals. To examine CLOCK-regulated circadian transcription in peripheral tissues, we performed microarray analyses using liver RNA isolated from Clock mutant mice. We also compared expression profiles with those of Cryptochromes (Cry1 and Cry2) double knockout mice. We identified more than 100 genes that fluctuated from day to night and of which expression levels were decreased in Clock mutant mice. In Cry-deficient mice, the expression levels of most CLOCK-regulated genes were elevated to the upper range of normal oscillation. Most of the screened genes had a CLOCK/BMAL1 binding site (E box) in the 5'-flanking region. We found that CLOCK was absolutely concerned with the circadian transcription of one type of liver genes (such as DBP, TEF, and Usp2) and partially with another (such as mPer1, mPer2, mDec1, Nocturnin, P450 oxidoreductase, and FKBP51) because the latter were damped but remained rhythmic in the mutant mice. Our results showed that CLOCK and CRY proteins are involved in the transcriptional regulation of many circadian output genes in the mouse liver. In addition to being a core component of the negative feedback loop that drives the circadian oscillator, CLOCK also appears to be involved in various physiological functions such as cell cycle, lipid metabolism, immune functions, and proteolysis in peripheral tissues.
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ABSTRACT: A conserved transcriptional feedback loop underlies animal circadian rhythms. In Drosophila, the transcription factors CLOCK (CLK) and CYCLE (CYC) activate the transcription of direct target genes like period (per) and timeless (tim). They encode the proteins PER and TIM, respectively, which repress CLK/CYC activity. Previous work indicates that repression is due to a direct PER-CLK/CYC interaction as well as CLK/CYC phosphorylation. We describe here the role of ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) in circadian transcriptional repression as well as the importance of CLK ubiquitylation in CLK/CYC transcription activity. usp8 loss of function (RNAi) or expression of a dominant-negative form of the protein (USP8-DN) enhances CLK/CYC transcriptional activity and alters fly locomotor activity rhythms. Clock protein and mRNA molecular oscillations are virtually absent within circadian neurons of USP8-DN flies. Furthermore, CLK ubiquitylation cycles robustly in wild-type flies and peaks coincident with maximal CLK/CYC transcription. As USP8 interacts with CLK and expression of USP8-DN increases CLK ubiquitylation, the data indicate that USP8 deubiquitylates CLK, which down-regulates CLK/CYC transcriptional activity. Taken together with the facts that usp8 mRNA cycles and that its transcription is activated directly by CLK/CYC, USP8, like PER and TIM, contributes to the transcriptional feedback loop cycle that underlies circadian rhythms.Genes & development 11/2012; 26(22):2536-49. · 12.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: C/EBPα plays important roles in metabolism as well as in the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Here we describe loss of the circadian oscillation of C/ebpα expression in liver of Clock mutant mice. Reporter assays indicate Clock and Bmal significantly induced C/ebpα gene expression whereas Cry suppressed. Real time reporter assays showed that two mutated E-boxes disrupted C/ebpα promoter dependent-oscillation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation suggests Clock can bind to two E-boxes in the C/ebpα promoter with a circadian manner in vivo. Thus, C/ebpα gene transcription is under circadian control of a core clock component, Clock. The data suggests that circadian disturbances may affect metabolic abnormalities through the C/ebpα pathway in liver.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e58221. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endogenous 24-hour rhythms are generated by circadian clocks located in most tissues. The molecular clock mechanism is based on feedback loops involving clock genes and their protein products. Post-translational modifications, including ubiquitination, are important for regulating the clock feedback mechanism. Previous work has focused on the role of ubiquitin ligases in the clock mechanism. Here we show a role for the rhythmically-expressed deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin specific peptidase 2 (USP2) in clock function. Mice with a deletion of the Usp2 gene (Usp2 KO) display a longer free-running period of locomotor activity rhythms and altered responses of the clock to light. This was associated with altered expression of clock genes in synchronized Usp2 KO mouse embryonic fibroblasts and increased levels of clock protein PERIOD1 (PER1). USP2 can be coimmunoprecipitated with several clock proteins but directly interacts specifically with PER1 and deubiquitinates it. Interestingly, this deubiquitination does not alter PER1 stability. Taken together, our results identify USP2 as a new core component of the clock machinery and demonstrate a role for deubiquitination in the regulation of the circadian clock, both at the level of the core pacemaker and its response to external cues.Biology open. 08/2012; 1(8):789-801.