Dehydroepiandrosterone modulates endothelial nitric oxide synthesis via direct genomic and nongenomic mechanisms.

Department of Reproductive Medicine and Child Development, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pisa, Pisa 56100, Italy.
Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.64). 09/2003; 144(8):3449-55. DOI: 10.1210/en.2003-0044
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester (DHEAS) are the major circulating steroid hormones in humans, and their levels progressively decline with age. Epidemiological studies suggest that DHEA/DHEAS concentrations may be inversely related to cardiovascular risk, but disagreement exists on this issue. Preliminary studies show that DHEA regulates vascular function, but few data have been published on the mechanisms. We show that DHEA administration to human endothelial cells triggers nitric oxide synthesis, due to enhanced expression and stabilization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Additionally, DHEA rapidly activates eNOS, through a nontranscriptional mechanism that depends on ERK1/2 MAPK, but not on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt. DHEA is not converted to estrogens or androgens by endothelial cells, and its genomic and nongenomic effects are not blocked by antagonists of the estrogen, progesterone, glucocorticoid, or androgen receptors, suggesting that DHEA acts through a specific receptor. Oral DHEA administration to ovariectomized Wistar rats dose-dependently restores aortic eNOS levels and eNOS activity, confirming the effects of DHEA in vivo. Our present data suggest that DHEA may have direct genomic and nongenomic effects on the vascular wall that are not mediated by other steroid hormone receptors, leading to eNOS activation and induction.

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