Multiple mechanisms of CB1 cannabinoid receptors regulation.
ABSTRACT Agonist-induced regulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors was examined in HEK-293 cells transfected with CB1 receptors and in neuroblastoma N18TG2 cells that naturally express CB1 receptors. In HEK-293 cells, CB1 receptors internalization proceeded, in parallel, via clathrin-coated pits and caveolae. Simultaneous disruption of both pathways induced compensatory endocytic mechanism(s). In N18TG2 cells, endocytosis was not mediated by caveolae-like membrane domains. Heterologous, opioid-induced, downregulation of CB1 receptors was evident in HEK-293 but not N18TG2 cells. The data demonstrate the existence of multiple pathways of CB1 receptors regulation.
- SourceAvailable from: Francheska Delgado-Peraza[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the major transducers of external stimuli and key therapeutic targets in many pathological conditions. When activated by different ligands, one receptor can elicit multiple signalling cascades that are mediated by G proteins or β-arrestin, a process defined as functional selectivity or ligand bias. However, the dynamic mechanisms underlying β-arrestin signalling remain unknown. Here by studying the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R), we identify ligand-specific endocytic dwell times, that is, the time during which receptors are clustered into clathrin pits together with β-arrestins before endocytosis, as the mechanism controlling β-arrestin signalling. Agonists inducing short endocytic dwell times produce little or no β-arrestin signalling, whereas those eliciting prolonged dwell times induce robust signalling. Remarkably, extending CB1R dwell times by preventing endocytosis substantially increased β-arrestin signalling. These studies reveal how receptor activation translates into β-arrestin signalling and identify a mechanism to control this pathway.Nature Communications 08/2014; 5:4589. · 10.74 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Summary Cannabis is the unique source of a set of at least 66 compounds known collectively as cannabinoids. Of these, most is known about the pharmacology of 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, and about cannabidiol (CBD), which lacks psychoactivity. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the pharmacological and therapeutic targets of these two cannabinoids. Many of the effects of 9-THC are mediated by cannabinoid receptors of which at least two types, CB1 and CB2, are present in mammalian tissues. Endogenous agonists for cannabinoid receptors have also been discovered. CB1 receptors are present at the terminals of central and peripheral neurones, where they modulate transmitter release. They also exist in some non-neuronal cells. CB2 receptors are expressed mainly by immune cells, one of their roles being to alter cytokine release. 9-THC also appears to have non-CB1, non-CB2 pharmacological targets. It is already licensed for clinical use in the U.S.A. as an anti-emetic and appetite stimulant and both 9-THC and 9-THC-rich cannabis extracts show therapeutic potential as neuroprotective and anticancer agents and for the management of glaucoma, pain and various kinds of motor dysfunction associated, for example, with multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. CBD has much less affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors than 9-THC and its pharmacological actions have been less well characterized. Potential clinical applications of CBD and CBD-rich cannabis extracts include the production of anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, the management of epilepsy, anxiety disorders, glaucoma and nausea, and the modulation of some effects of 9-THC.Euphytica 01/2004; 140(1):73-82. · 1.69 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The leaves of large plantain (Plantago major L.) are used for wound healing in the traditional medicine. The effect might be due to biologically active polysaccharides. A pectin, PMII with anti-complementary activity has been isolated from the leaves by water extraction and ion exchange chromatography (1).Oligosaccharides were isolated from PMII by weak acid hydrolysis and separation by SEC and HPAEC-PAD. The isolated oligosaccharides were desalted, reduced and methylated. GC-MS analysis of the partially methylated alditol acetates has been used to reveal the structure of the oligosaccharides.Oligosaccharides consisting of galacturonic acid and rhamnose with dp 3–5 and a series of 1,4 linked galacturonic acid oligosaccharides of dp 4–10 were isolated.Progress in Biotechnology - PROGR BIOTECHNOL. 01/1996; 14:619-622.