Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia following stem cell transplantation.
ABSTRACT Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) can occur after stem cell transplantation, but the aetiology is unknown. Based on the association between angiitis syndrome and Helicobacter pylori infection, we identified possible risk factors common to these two conditions. Among 83 patients who underwent stem cell transplantation, four developed IIP. We elucidated various parameters and clinical features in four patients with IIP and 79 patients without, after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In all four patients, (1) the conditioning regimen induced total body irradiation, (2) serological reactivation of cytomegalovirus and/or human herpesvirus-6 preceded the onset of IIP, (3) their human leucocyte antigen types were among those suspected to increase susceptibility to angiitis syndrome, (4) serum anti-H. pylori antibody was positive before conditioning and remained positive throughout the post-transplantation course, (5) inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, 8 and 12) were increased during the period of leucocyte recovery after transplantation and (6) the levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, thrombomodulin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were increased at the onset of IIP. These findings suggest the possibility that angiitis syndrome and H. pylori infection are involved in the pathogenesis of post-transplantation IIP.
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ABSTRACT: Chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 (ciHHV-6) is a condition in which the complete HHV-6 genome is integrated into the host germ line genome and is vertically transmitted in a Mendelian manner. The condition is found in less than 1% of controls in the USA and UK, but has been found at a somewhat higher prevalence in transplant recipients and other patient populations in several small studies. HHV-6 levels in whole blood that exceed 5.5 log10 copies/ml are strongly suggestive of ciHHV-6. Monitoring DNA load in plasma and serum is unreliable, both for identifying and for monitoring subjects with ciHHV-6 due to cell lysis and release of cellular DNA. High HHV-6 DNA loads associated with ciHHV-6 can lead to erroneous diagnosis of active infection. Transplant recipients with ciHHV-6 may be at increased risk for bacterial infection and graft rejection. ciHHV-6 can be induced to a state of active viral replication in vitro. It is not known whether ciHHV-6 individuals are put at clinical risk by the use of drugs that have been associated with HHV-6 reactivation in vivo or in vitro. Nonetheless, we urge careful observation when use of such drugs is indicated in individuals known to have ciHHV-6. Little is known about whether individuals with ciHHV-6 develop immune tolerance for viral proteins. Further research is needed to determine the role of ciHHV-6 in disease.Reviews in Medical Virology 05/2012; 22(3):144-55. DOI:10.1002/rmv.715 · 5.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The authors present the high-resolution computed tomography findings of a patient with idiopathic pneumonia syndrome after bone marrow transplantation. The main finding consisted of extensive ground-glass opacities superimposed to mild interlobular septal thickening, resulting in the appearance termed "crazy-paving". Following the clinical, laboratorial and imaging criteria, the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary syndrome was defined and corticosteroids were introduced. The clinical symptoms improved in the following days, and the patient was discharged from the hospital.Cases Journal 11/2008; 1(1):234. DOI:10.1186/1757-1626-1-234
Thomas' Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Third Edition, 10/2007: pages 873 - 882; , ISBN: 9780470987070