Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa seed with commercial citrus-related products.
ABSTRACT Alfalfa sprouts contaminated with the bacterial pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella have been the source of numerous outbreaks of foodborne illness in the United States and in other countries. The seed used for sprouting appears to be the primary source of these pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine whether the efficacy of commercial citrus-related products for sanitizing sprouting seed is similar to that of high levels of chlorine. Five products (Citrex, Pangermex, Citricidal, Citrobio, and Environné) were tested at concentrations of up to 20,000 ppm in sterile tap water and compared with buffered chlorine (at 16,000 ppm). Alfalfa seeds were inoculated with four-strain cocktails of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 to give final initial concentrations of ca. 9.0 and 7.0 CFU/g, respectively. Treatments (10 min) with Citrex, Pangermex, and Citricidal at 20,000 ppm and chlorine at 16,000 ppm produced similar log reductions for alfalfa seed inoculated with four-strain cocktails of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella (3.42 to 3.46 log CFU/g and 3.56 to 3.74 log CFU/g, respectively), and all four treatments were significantly (P<0.05) more effective than the control treatment (a buffer wash). Citrobio at 20,000 ppm was as effective as the other three products and chlorine against Salmonella but not against E. coli O157:H7. Environné was not more effective (producing reductions of 2.2 to 2.9 log CFU/g) than the control treatment (which produced reductions of 2.1 to 2.3 log CFU/g) against either pathogen. None of the treatments reduced seed germination. In vitro assays, as well as transmission electron microscopy, confirmed the antibacterial nature of the products that were effective against the two pathogens and indicated that they were bactericidal. When used at 20,000 ppm, the effective citrus-related products may be viable alternatives to chlorine for the sanitization of sprouting seed pending regulatory approval.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract After a series of outbreaks associated with sprouts in the mid-1990s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published guidelines in 1999 for sprouts producers to reduce the risk of contamination. The recommendations included treating seeds with an antimicrobial agent such as calcium hypochlorite solution and testing spent irrigation water for pathogens. From 1998 through 2010, 33 outbreaks from seed and bean sprouts were documented in the United States, affecting 1330 reported persons. Twenty-eight outbreaks were caused by Salmonella, four by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and one by Listeria. In 15 of the 18 outbreaks with information available, growers had not followed key FDA guidelines. In three outbreaks, however, the implicated sprouts were produced by firms that appeared to have implemented key FDA guidelines. Although seed chlorination, if consistently applied, reduces pathogen burden on sprouts, it does not eliminate the risk of human infection. Further seed and sprouts disinfection technologies, some recently developed, will be needed to enhance sprouts safety and reduce human disease. Improved seed production practices could also decrease pathogen burden but, because seeds are a globally distributed commodity, will require international cooperation.Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 08/2014; 11(8):635-44. DOI:10.1089/fpd.2013.1705 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The results of the study are based on field experience, carried out in the years 2011-2012 in Żyznów. The experience was done on the soil brown, class IVa. The experiment was performed using randomized blocks, 3 repetitions. The numbers of snails was studied on 3 potato varieties: Vineta, Ewelina and Zuzanna. Estimation of threat to plants by this pest included determining the severity of their occurrence and valuating the degree of damage to the plant. Observations of density of snails were held from plant emergence to full flowering. For this purpose, 9 traps (3 on each variety) were used to catch the snails. Traps with baits in the form of fresh vegetables, were placed randomly in various locations on potato plantations. The largest numbers of Arion lusitanicus was observed during full flowering plants. The size of the damage caused by Arion lusitanicus was dependent on potato varietal characteristics, while meteorological conditions, limited the occurrence of Spanish slug to the greatest extentThe Sixth International Scientific Conference Rural Development 2013. Published by ASU Publishing Center Studentų str. 11, LT-53361 Akademija, Kauno r. Lithuania, Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science, Kaunas Lithuania; 11/2013