Vasopressin accelerates experimental ammonia-induced brain edema in rats after portacaval anastomosis.
ABSTRACT Cerebral hyperemia is an important contributor to the development of brain edema in fulminant hepatic failure. Rats receiving an ammonia infusion after portacaval anastomosis (PCA) demonstrate a rise in cerebral blood flow (CBF) with brain edema at 180 min. Vasopressin (VP), a systemic vasoconstrictor which in the rat dilates cerebral vessels through V(2) receptors, was used to ascertain the effects of increasing CBF.
Changes in CBF were measured with Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Absolute CBF was measured with radioactive microspheres to calculate oxygen and ammonia uptake.
Compared to the NH(3)+Vehicle group, VP+NH(3) infusion accelerated the rise in CBF (117+/-21 vs. -6+/-12%, P<0.01), and the development of brain edema (81.09+/-0.17 vs. 80.29+/-0.06%, P<0.01). Radioactive microspheres confirmed these results (254+/-44 vs. 106+/-9.5 ml/min/100 g, P<0.01). Oxygen uptake was similar. Ammonia uptake was more than twofold higher in the VP+NH(3) group. A V(1) antagonist negated the higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) that occurs with VP but cerebral hyperemia still occurred. A V(2) antagonist resulted in similar systemic pressures, CBF and brain water compared to the VP+NH(3) group.
In this model, an increase in CBF with VP hastens the development of brain edema while increasing ammonia delivery to the brain.
- Journal of Hepatology 11/1999; 31(4):771-6. · 9.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) die with brain edema, exhibiting an increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) at the time of cerebral swelling. Mild hypothermia prevents brain edema in experimental models and in humans with FHF, an effect associated with normalization of CBF. To study the effects of alterations of CBF on the development of brain edema, we administered intravenous (IV) indomethacin to rats receiving an ammonia infusion after portacaval anastomosis. This model predictably develops brain edema and a marked increase in CBF at 3 hours of infusion. Brain water was measured with the gravimetry technique; CBF was monitored with both laser Doppler flowmetry and radioactive microspheres, whereas intracranial pressure (ICP) was monitored with a cisterna magna catheter. Coadministration of indomethacin prevented the increase in CBF seen with ammonia alone (110 +/- 19% vs. -2 +/- 9%) as well as the increase in brain water (80.86 +/- 0.12% vs. 80.18 +/- 0.06%) and the increase in ICP. Plasma ammonia and brain glutamine levels were markedly elevated in the ammonia-infused group and unaffected by indomethacin. However, ammonia uptake by the brain was significantly reduced by indomethacin. Levels of 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), a stable metabolite of prostacyclin, were reduced in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of indomethacin-treated animals. As with mild hypothermia, avoiding cerebral vasodilatation with indomethacin will prevent the development of brain edema in this hyperammonemic model. Cerebral vasoconstriction reduces cerebral ammonia uptake and, if selective to the brain, may be of benefit in FHF.Hepatology 09/2001; 34(2):249-54. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two mechanisms may account for brain edema in fulminant hepatic failure: the osmotic effects of brain glutamine, a product of ammonia detoxification, and a change of cerebral blood flow (CBF). We have shown brain edema, a marked increase in brain glutamine, and a selective rise in CBF in rats after portacaval anastomosis receiving an ammonia infusion. In this study, we inhibited the activity of glutamine synthetase with methionine-sulfoximine (MSO) and examined ammonia levels, brain water and CBF. Four groups received either a continuous ammonium acetate or control infusion; half of the animals had been pretreated with MSO or vehicle. The ammonia group exhibited brain edema (79.97 +/- 0.04 vs. 81.11 +/- 0. 13% water), an increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glutamine (1.29 +/- 0.21 vs. 2.84 +/- 0.39 mmol/L) and CBF (63 +/- 11 vs. 266 +/- 45 mL/min/100 g brain). When MSO was added to the ammonia infusion, ammonia levels rose further (928 +/- 51 vs. 1,293 +/- 145 mmol/L, P <.05) but CSF glutamine decreased (2.84 +/- 0.39 vs. 1.61 +/- 0.2 mmol/L, P <.01). Brain edema (80.48 +/- 0.11%) and cerebral hyperemia (140 +/- 25 mL/min/100 g brain) were significantly ameliorated in the ammonia plus MSO group. Brain output of circulating nitric oxide (NO(x)) was increased in the ammonia-infused group but normalized in the ammonia plus MSO group. In this model, the rise of CBF reflects intracranial events that occur after glutamine synthesis. Activation of nitric oxide synthase in the brain could account for these findings.Hepatology 11/1999; 30(4):876-80. · 12.00 Impact Factor