Vasopressin accelerates experimental ammonia-induced brain edema in rats after portacaval anastomosis.
ABSTRACT Cerebral hyperemia is an important contributor to the development of brain edema in fulminant hepatic failure. Rats receiving an ammonia infusion after portacaval anastomosis (PCA) demonstrate a rise in cerebral blood flow (CBF) with brain edema at 180 min. Vasopressin (VP), a systemic vasoconstrictor which in the rat dilates cerebral vessels through V(2) receptors, was used to ascertain the effects of increasing CBF.
Changes in CBF were measured with Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Absolute CBF was measured with radioactive microspheres to calculate oxygen and ammonia uptake.
Compared to the NH(3)+Vehicle group, VP+NH(3) infusion accelerated the rise in CBF (117+/-21 vs. -6+/-12%, P<0.01), and the development of brain edema (81.09+/-0.17 vs. 80.29+/-0.06%, P<0.01). Radioactive microspheres confirmed these results (254+/-44 vs. 106+/-9.5 ml/min/100 g, P<0.01). Oxygen uptake was similar. Ammonia uptake was more than twofold higher in the VP+NH(3) group. A V(1) antagonist negated the higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) that occurs with VP but cerebral hyperemia still occurred. A V(2) antagonist resulted in similar systemic pressures, CBF and brain water compared to the VP+NH(3) group.
In this model, an increase in CBF with VP hastens the development of brain edema while increasing ammonia delivery to the brain.
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ABSTRACT: Continued elucidation of the mechanisms of brain edema in acute liver failure (ALF) has established ammonia and the astrocyte as major players in its pathogenesis. The metabolism of ammonia to glutamine appears to be a requisite, and is followed by an osmotic disturbance in the brain, mitochondrial dysfunction with oxidative/nitrosative stress, and alterations of brain glucose metabolism. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is also altered in ALF and strongly influence the development of brain edema and intracranial hypertension. Additional factors such as systemic inflammation, alterations of the brain extracellular concentration of amino acids and neurotransmitters, and others have been identified and may contribute to the cerebral alterations of ALF. Such pathophysiologic insights are reflected in the various clinical trials of novel therapeutic interventions using ammonia-lowering agents, N-acetylcysteine, hypertonic saline, indomethacin, high-volume plasmapheresis, bio-artificial liver assist devices, albumin dialysis and mild hypothermia.Neurological Research 11/2007; 29(7):683-90. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Volume expansion and inotropic support with catecholamines are sometimes insufficient to ensure adequate blood pressure and cerebral perfusion in acute liver failure (ALF). The aim of this study was to determine if terlipressin increases cerebral perfusion, cerebral concentration of lactate and intracranial pressure (ICP), and to compare the effect with that of noradrenalin (NA). Ten patients (median age 42.5 yr; range 15-66; 5 women) who needed inotropic support and had an ICP and a cerebral microdialysis catheter placed had concomitant recording of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), cerebral perfusion (using transcranial Doppler sonography (V(mean))) and ICP. Also cerebral extracellular concentration of lactate ([lactate]ec) and pyruvate ([pyruvate]ec) was collected before and after an increase in the NA infusion rate and/or i.v.-injection of 1mg terlipressin. Both NA and terlipressin increased CPP and V(mean) (p<0.01). Also ICP increased during NA infusion (p<0.01) but not after terlipressin. The cerebral [lactate]ec decreased after terlipressin injection from 2.34 (1.52-8.38) to 1.99 (0.03-4.83)mmol/l (p=0.027) but not during NA infusion (2.83 (1.53-7.11)mmol/l). The [lactate]ec to [pyruvate]ec ratio remained unchanged in both the NA group (20.7 (13.2-40.0)) and terlipressin group (22.2 (10.5-30.0)). This study shows that terlipressin increases CPP and cerebral perfusion with little influence upon ICP and cerebral [lactate]ec in ALF patients. These findings indicate that terlipressin may be valuable, as an additive treatment to NA infusion to secure brain viability.Journal of Hepatology 10/2007; 47(3):381-6. · 9.86 Impact Factor
Article: Management of acute liver failure.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Acute liver failure (ALF) is a syndrome of diverse etiology, in which patients without previously recognized liver disease sustain a liver injury that results in rapid loss of hepatic function. Depending on the etiology and severity of the insult, some patients undergo rapid hepatic regeneration and spontaneously recover. However, nearly 60% of patients with ALF in the US require and undergo orthotopic liver transplantation or die. Management decisions made by clinicians who initially assess individuals with ALF can drastically affect these patients' outcomes. Even with optimal early management, however, many patients with ALF develop a cascade of complications often presaged by the systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which involves failure of nearly every organ system. We highlight advances in the intensive care management of patients with ALF that have contributed to a marked improvement in their overall survival over the past 20 years. These advances include therapies that limit the extent of liver injury and maximize the likelihood of spontaneous recovery and approaches to enable prevention, recognition and early treatment of complications that lead to multi-organ-system failure, the most common cause of death. Finally, we summarize the role of orthotopic liver transplantation in salvage of the most severely affected patients.Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 09/2009; 6(9):542-53. · 10.43 Impact Factor