Reliability, Validity, and Preliminary Normative Data for the Children's Aggression Scale–Teacher Version

Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Borough of Manhattan, New York, United States
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.26). 09/2003; 42(8):965-71. DOI: 10.1097/01.CHI.0000046899.27264.EB
Source: PubMed


To provide preliminary psychometric data on the Children's Aggression Scale-Teacher Version (CAS-T), which was designed to assess severity and frequency of aggressive, as distinct from nonaggressive, disruptive behaviors.
The CAS-T has 23 items representing five domains: Verbal aggression, Aggression against objects and animals, Provoked physical aggression, Unprovoked physical aggression, and Use of weapons. The CAS-T was completed for 273 nonreferred boys and 67 clinically referred children (60 boys; 7 girls). Coefficient alpha was assessed separately in clinical and nonreferred groups. Validity was evaluated by comparing CAS-T scores of children with different disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses and by examining the relationship of CAS-T scores to other parent and teacher ratings.
The scale as a whole had excellent reliability as measured by coefficient alpha. Children with conduct disorder were rated significantly higher than those with oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and no disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. Further, patterns of correlations with other rating scales provide strong support for the convergent and discriminant validity of the CAS-T.
The CAS-T may fill a gap in that it distinguishes among various types and severity of aggression, as distinct from oppositional-defiant behaviors.

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    • "These scales were designed by Halperin et al. [24,25]. Both the 33-item CAS–P and 23-item CAS–T require informants to indicate the frequency (i.e., never, once per month or less, once per week or less, 2–3 times per week, or most days) with which the child has engaged in various aggressive behaviors during the past year. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The present study uses structural equation modeling of latent traits to examine the extent to which family factors, cognitive factors and perceptions of rejection in mother-child relations differentially correlate with aggression at home and at school. Methods Data were collected from 476 school-age (7–15 years old) children with a diagnosis of ADHD who had previously shown different types of aggressive behavior, as well as from their parents and teachers. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the differential relationships between maternal rejection, family, cognitive factors and aggression in home and school settings. Results Family factors influenced aggression reported at home (.68) and at school (.44); maternal rejection seems to be related to aggression at home (.21). Cognitive factors influenced aggression reported at school (.-05) and at home (-.12). Conclusions Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of aggressive behavior in ADHD. Identifying key risk factors will advance the development of appropriate clinical interventions and prevention strategies and will provide information to guide the targeting of resources to those children at highest risk.
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 05/2014; 8(1):15. DOI:10.1186/1753-2000-8-15
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    • "In the years since this work, the IOWA has become one of the most commonly used measures of IO and OD in children. Indeed, the publication outlining normative data for teacher ratings on the IOWA (Pelham et al. 1989) has been cited in more than 100 studies, including recent treatment studies (e.g., Remschmidt et al. 2005), laboratory studies (e.g., Oosterlan et al. 2005), family studies (e.g., Brent et al. 2004), and assessment studies (e.g., Gadow et al. 2004; Halperin et al. 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: The IOWA Conners Rating Scale is a widely used brief measure of inattentive-impulsive-overactive (IO) and oppositional-defiant (OD) behavior in children. This study examined the psychometric properties of this measure when completed by mothers and teachers. Results of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a three-factor solution, conforming to current DSM-IV formulations of the disruptive behavior disorders, provided a better fit to the observed data than the currently used two-factor model, in which no distinction is made between inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behaviors. Both new and currently used scale scores had good internal consistency and test–retest reliability and showed that boys’ scores were significantly higher than girls’ scores. Results held for both mother and teacher ratings. Clinical cutoff scores were proposed and performed reasonably well to screen for ADHD and ODD. Results support the IOWA Conners as a screening measure for the disruptive behavior disorders or as a tool for monitoring treatment response.
    Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 09/2007; 30(3):180-192. DOI:10.1007/s10862-007-9064-y · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    • "Finally, in order to answer these questions, tools are needed to facilitate the recording of violent and aggressive incidents. Tools exist for helping to describe the nature of aggressive behaviors (Yudofsky et al. 1986; Morrison 1993; Halperin et al. 2003; Sullivan et al. 2005). However, available instruments should be evaluated to establish one that "
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    ABSTRACT: Restraint and seclusion of children has great potential for harm. Since the mid-1980s, psychiatric inpatient personnel for children and adolescents have put considerable energy in reducing the use of extreme measures of aggression management. While the use of restraints is a particular problem in the United States, aggression management and means of control in psychiatric settings is an international issue. The core question of this review was: What is the current state of the evidence supporting restraint reduction efforts with children and adolescents? Studies were reviewed and critiqued that related to programs of restraint reduction, restraint reduction methods, and aggression management. Internationally, there seems to be more emphasis on reducing coercive measures by understanding the context of their use. Thus, studies exploring staff perceptions and decisions concerning coercive measures were also examined. The evidence supporting restraint reduction methods in the United States comes mainly from case study reports of clinical sites' quality improvement projects. Consequently, a collection of studies is accumulating that supports a multi-strategy approach to restraint reduction. Limited evidence exists for aggression management measures and training in de-escalation techniques. Controversial aggression management techniques such as the use of pro re nata medication and holding continue to be used with very little support for their efficacy. Recommendations include taking a view of restraint and seclusion as emergency measures to address dangerous aggression, not interventions examined in controlled studies. As such it is suggested that sites pool data on restraint use and reduction efforts to create a database for benchmarking and studying variations among hospitals. Furthermore, attention should also be given to developing additional means for addressing aggressive behaviors.
    Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing 02/2006; 3(1):19-30. DOI:10.1111/j.1741-6787.2006.00043.x · 2.38 Impact Factor
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