Effects of Microcystis cells, cell extracts and lipopolysaccharide on drinking and liver function in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum.
ABSTRACT Liver mass (hepatosomatic index, HSI) increased by approximately 18% and water content in the gut by approximately 13 ml kg(-1) in freshwater rainbow trout exposed for 24 h to intact cells of a microcystin-producing cyanobacterium (Microcystis PCC 7813) together with administration of heterotrophic bacterial LPS. Exposure to broken (ultrasonicated) cyanobacterial cells together with administration of bacterial LPS increased HSI by approximately 50% and water content in the gut by almost 30 ml kg(-1). Exposure to broken or unbroken Microcystis cells without administration of bacterial LPS resulted in increased water content of the gut (by approximately 13 ml kg(-1)) with insignificant changes in HIS. Drinking rate increased with increasing dosage of bacterial LPS alone. The increased volume of water in the gut potentially increases the opportunity for uptake of waterborne toxins, including microcystins, and increased liver mass is a symptom consistent with the toxic effects of microcystins. It is concluded that exposure of fish to the cell contents of cyanobacteria (e.g. Microcystis PCC 7813) promotes osmoregulatory imbalance resulting from stimulation of the drinking response, increased volume of fluid in the gut and inability to remove excess water.
Article: Effects of cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharides from microcystis on glutathione-based detoxification pathways in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cyanobacteria ("blue-green algae") are recognized producers of a diverse array of toxic secondary metabolites. Of these, the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), produced by all cyanobacteria, remain to be well investigated. In the current study, we specifically employed the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo to investigate the effects of LPS from geographically diverse strains of the widespread cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis, on several detoxifying enzymes/pathways, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)/glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), and compared observed effects to those of heterotrophic bacterial (i.e., E. coli) LPS. In agreement with previous studies, cyanobacterial LPS significantly reduced GST in embryos exposed to LPS in all treatments. In contrast, GPx moderately increased in embryos exposed to LPS, with no effect on reciprocal GR activity. Interestingly, total glutathione levels were elevated in embryos exposed to Microcystis LPS, but the relative levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione (i.e., GSH/GSSG) were, likewise, elevated suggesting that oxidative stress is not involved in the observed effects as typical of heterotrophic bacterial LPS in mammalian systems. In further support of this, no effect was observed with respect to CAT or SOD activity. These findings demonstrate that Microcystis LPS affects glutathione-based detoxification pathways in the zebrafish embryo, and more generally, that this model is well suited for investigating the apparent toxicophore of cyanobacterial LPS, including possible differences in structure-activity relationships between heterotrophic and cyanobacterial LPS, and teleost fish versus mammalian systems.Toxins. 06/2012; 4(6):390-404.
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ABSTRACT: Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes with wide geographic distribution that can produce secondary metabolites named cyanotoxins. These toxins can be classified into three main types according to their mechanism of action in vertebrates: hepatotoxins, dermatotoxins and neurotoxins. Many studies on the effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins over a wide range of aquatic organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates, have reported acute effects (e.g., reduction in survivorship, feeding inhibition, paralysis), chronic effects (e.g., reduction in growth and fecundity), biochemical alterations (e.g., activity of phosphatases, GST, AChE, proteases), and behavioral alterations. Research has also focused on the potential for bioaccumulation and transferring of these toxins through the food chain. Although the herbivorous zooplankton is hypothesized as the main target of cyanotoxins, there is not unquestionable evidence of the deleterious effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins on these organisms. Also, the low toxin burden in secondary consumers points towards biodilution of microcystins in the food web as the predominant process. In this broad review we discuss important issues on bioaccumulation and the effects of cyanotoxins, with emphasis on microcystins, as well as drawbacks and future needs in this field of research.Marine Drugs 12/2011; 9(12):2729-72. · 3.85 Impact Factor