Survival of pathogens on stainless steel surfaces and cross-contamination to foods

Laboratory of Food Microbiology, Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Wageningen University, PO Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands.
International Journal of Food Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.08). 09/2003; 85(3):227-36. DOI: 10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00540-8
Source: PubMed


The retention of bacteria on food contact surfaces increases the risk of cross-contamination of these microorganisms to food. The risk has been considered to be lowered when the surfaces are dry, partly because bacterial growth and survival would be reduced. However, some non-spore-forming bacteria might be able to withstand dry conditions on surfaces for an extensive period of time. In this study the survival of Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter jejuni on stainless steel surfaces at different initial levels was determined at room temperature. The transfer rates of these pathogens from kitchen sponges to stainless steel surfaces and from these surfaces to foods were also investigated. Staph. aureus was recovered from the surfaces for at least 4 days when the contamination level was high (10 5 CFU/cm2) or moderate (103 CFU/cm 2). At low levels (10 CFU/cm2), the surviving numbers decreased below the detection limit (4 CFU/100 cm2) within 2 days. S. enteritidis was recovered from surfaces for at least 4 days at high contamination levels, but at moderate level, the numbers decreased to the detection limit within 24 h and at low level within 1 h. C. jejuni was the most susceptible to slow-air-drying on surfaces; at high contamination levels, the numbers decreased below the detection limit within 4 h. The test microorganisms were readily transmitted from the wet sponges to the stainless steel surfaces and from these surfaces to the cucumber and chicken fillet slices, with the transfer rates varied from 20% to 100%. This study has highlighted the fact that pathogens remain viable on dry stainless steel surfaces and present a contamination hazard for considerable periods of time, dependent on the contamination levels and type of pathogen. Systematic studies on the risks of pathogen transfer associated with surface cleaning using contaminated sponges provide quantitative data from which a model of risks assessment in domestic setting could lead.

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    • "Either way, the fish sector has to comply with challenges along the production line, including adequate cleaning-and disinfection routines (Regulation (EC) No 853/2004). Several studies have been performed to identify biohazards , and to analyse and calculate the risk of contamination of different food items during processing (den Aantrekker et al., 2003; Kusumaningrum et al., 2003; P erez-Rodríguez et al., 2008), including marine species e.g. Atlantic salmon and Atlantic herring (Bagge-Ravn et al., 2003; Skåra et al., 2011). "
    Dataset: tama1
    Pm Tama ·

    • "Bowl surfaces were then scrubbed in hot water with an anionic active detergent, and rinsed with hot water. Bowl surfaces were then soaked in 70% ethanol for 1 h, removed, and air-dried prior to each experiment, modeled after a previously published protocol (Kusumaningrum et al., 2003). Several methods of disinfection as well as mechanical scrubbing/heat were used in combination, since disinfectants vary in their spectrum and modes of action. "
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    • "Currently, nut butter producers frequently push through fresh product or internal pipeline cleaning devices to remove unwanted product or clean their piping, and do not have validated chemical methods to sanitize their processing equipment. The lack of effective sanitation procedures could lead to microbial cross-contamination (Evans et al., 1996; Grocery Manufacturers Association, 2009b; Kusumaningrum et al., 2003) "
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Questions & Answers about this publication

  • Warsono El Kiyat added an answer in Food Contaminants:
    What technique should be use to assess the health hazard due to consumption of contaminated vegetables?

    How can I assess the risk on human health due to consumption of contaminated vegetables by taking blood samples? Please suggest me.

    Warsono El Kiyat

    Maybe these links can help you,,,

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      ABSTRACT: A total of 125 samples, consisting of 40 samples of chicken cuts, 30 samples of beef cuts and minced beef, 29 samples of fish, and 26 samples of vegetables were examined for aerobic plate counts and the presence of Salmonella. The samples were collected from the open market and from a supermarket in Bogor Indonesia. Based on the total plate counts, 35.2% of the fresh products showed a good to average quality. Salmonellae were detected in 24.8% of the samples examined. Chicken cuts were found as the most contaminated (52.5%), followed by beef (16.7%), fish (10.3%) and vegetables (7.7%). Serotyping of the isolates identified four serotypes: Salmonella Weltevreden, S. Kentucky, S. Typhimurium and S. Paratyphi C. Most of the isolates (n=15) exhibited resistance to erythromycin. Only one isolate of S. Kentucky, isolated from chicken cuts, showed intermediate resistance to chloramphenicol. Ten isolates showed resistance to at least two antibiotics. One strain of S. Weltevreden isolated from beef cuts demonstrated resistance to four antimicrobial agents (erythromycin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin).
      International Food Research Journal 01/2012; 19(1):57-63.

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