Survival of pathogens on stainless steel surfaces and cross-contamination to foods

Laboratory of Food Microbiology, Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Wageningen University, PO Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands.
International Journal of Food Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.08). 09/2003; 85(3):227-36. DOI: 10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00540-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The retention of bacteria on food contact surfaces increases the risk of cross-contamination of these microorganisms to food. The risk has been considered to be lowered when the surfaces are dry, partly because bacterial growth and survival would be reduced. However, some non-spore-forming bacteria might be able to withstand dry conditions on surfaces for an extensive period of time. In this study the survival of Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter jejuni on stainless steel surfaces at different initial levels was determined at room temperature. The transfer rates of these pathogens from kitchen sponges to stainless steel surfaces and from these surfaces to foods were also investigated. Staph. aureus was recovered from the surfaces for at least 4 days when the contamination level was high (10 5 CFU/cm2) or moderate (103 CFU/cm 2). At low levels (10 CFU/cm2), the surviving numbers decreased below the detection limit (4 CFU/100 cm2) within 2 days. S. enteritidis was recovered from surfaces for at least 4 days at high contamination levels, but at moderate level, the numbers decreased to the detection limit within 24 h and at low level within 1 h. C. jejuni was the most susceptible to slow-air-drying on surfaces; at high contamination levels, the numbers decreased below the detection limit within 4 h. The test microorganisms were readily transmitted from the wet sponges to the stainless steel surfaces and from these surfaces to the cucumber and chicken fillet slices, with the transfer rates varied from 20% to 100%. This study has highlighted the fact that pathogens remain viable on dry stainless steel surfaces and present a contamination hazard for considerable periods of time, dependent on the contamination levels and type of pathogen. Systematic studies on the risks of pathogen transfer associated with surface cleaning using contaminated sponges provide quantitative data from which a model of risks assessment in domestic setting could lead.

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    • "Bowl surfaces were then scrubbed in hot water with an anionic active detergent, and rinsed with hot water. Bowl surfaces were then soaked in 70% ethanol for 1 h, removed, and air-dried prior to each experiment, modeled after a previously published protocol (Kusumaningrum et al., 2003). Several methods of disinfection as well as mechanical scrubbing/heat were used in combination, since disinfectants vary in their spectrum and modes of action. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lettuce and leafy greens have been implicated in multiple foodborne disease outbreaks. This study quantifies cross contamination between lettuce pieces in a small-scale home environment. A five-strain cocktail of relevant Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains was used. Bacterial transfer between single inoculated lettuce leaf pieces to 10 non-inoculated lettuce leaf pieces that were washed in a stainless steel bowl of water for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, and 5 min was quantified. Regardless of washing time, the wash water became contaminated with 90-99% of bacteria originally present on the inoculated lettuce leaf piece. The E. coli O157:H7 concentration on initially inoculated leaf pieces was reduced ∼2 log CFU. Each initially uncontaminated lettuce leaf piece had ∼1% of the E. coli O157:H7 from the inoculated lettuce piece transferred to it after washing, with more transfer occurring during the shortest (30 s) and longest (5 min) wash times. In all cases the log percent transfer rates were essentially normally distributed. In all scenarios, most of the E. coli O157:H7 (90-99%) transferred from the inoculated lettuce pieces to the wash water. Washing with plain tap water reduces levels of E. coli O157:H7 on the inoculated lettuce leaf pieces, but also spreads contamination to previously uncontaminated leaf pieces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Food Microbiology 04/2015; 46:428-33. DOI:10.1016/
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    • "Currently, nut butter producers frequently push through fresh product or internal pipeline cleaning devices to remove unwanted product or clean their piping, and do not have validated chemical methods to sanitize their processing equipment. The lack of effective sanitation procedures could lead to microbial cross-contamination (Evans et al., 1996; Grocery Manufacturers Association, 2009b; Kusumaningrum et al., 2003) "
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90oC) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm2 remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (< 0.16 log CFU/cm2). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment.
    Food Microbiology 12/2014; 46. DOI:10.1016/
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    • "c o m / l o c a t e / i j f o o d m i c r o (Gourabathini et al., 2008; Greub and Raoult, 2004; Thomas et al., 2010; Vaerewijck et al., 2014). Dishcloths are commonly used to clean surfaces, kitchen equipment and utensils, crockery and cutlery, etc., enhancing the potential for cross-contamination between food-related habitats (Kusumaningrum et al., 2003; Mattick et al., 2003). Foodborne bacteria are also commonly present in kitchens and households (Jackson et al., 2007; Macias-Rodriguez et al., 2013; Scott et al., 2008) and form an important source of foodborne illness (Luber, 2009; Newell et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, the occurrence of free-living protozoa (FLP) and foodborne bacterial pathogens on dishcloths was investigated. Dishcloths form a potentially important source of cross-contamination with FLP and foodborne pathogens in food-related environments. First various protocols for recovering and quantifying FLP from dishcloths were assessed. The stomacher technique is recommended to recover flagellates and amoebae from dishcloths. Ciliates, however, were more efficiently recovered using centrifugation. For enumeration of free-living protozoa on dishcloths, the Most Probable Number method is a convenient method. Enrichment was used to assess FLP diversity on dishcloths (n = 38). FLP were found on 89% of the examined dishcloths; 100% of these tested positive for amoebae, 71% for flagellates and 47% for ciliates. Diversity was dominated by amoebae: vahlkampfiids, vannellids, Acanthamoeba spp., Hyperamoeba sp. and Vermamoeba vermiformis were most common. The ciliate genus Colpoda was especially abundant on dishcloths while heterotrophic nanoflagellates mainly belonged to the genus Bodo, the glissomonads and cercomonads. The total number of FLP in used dishcloths ranged from 10 to 104 MPN/cm2. Flagellates were the most abundant group, and ciliates the least abundant. Detergent use was identified as a prime determinant of FLP concentrations on used dishcloths. Bacterial load on dishcloths was high, with a mean total of aerobic bacteria of 7.47 log10 cfu/cm2. Escherichia coli was detected in 68% (26/38) of the used dishcloths, with concentrations up to 4 log10 cfu/cm2. Foodborne pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus (19/38), Arcobacter butzleri (5/38) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. Halle (1/38) were also present. This study showed for the first time that FLP, including some opportunistic pathogens, are a common and diverse group on dishcloths. Moreover, important foodborne pathogens are also regularly recovered. This simultaneous occurrence makes dishcloths a potential risk factor for cross-contamination and a microbial niche for bacteria–FLP interactions.
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 09/2014; 191:89–96. DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.08.030
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Questions & Answers about this publication

  • Warsono El Kiyat added an answer in Food Contaminants:
    What technique should be use to assess the health hazard due to consumption of contaminated vegetables?

    How can I assess the risk on human health due to consumption of contaminated vegetables by taking blood samples? Please suggest me.

    Warsono El Kiyat

    Maybe these links can help you,,,

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      ABSTRACT: A total of 125 samples, consisting of 40 samples of chicken cuts, 30 samples of beef cuts and minced beef, 29 samples of fish, and 26 samples of vegetables were examined for aerobic plate counts and the presence of Salmonella. The samples were collected from the open market and from a supermarket in Bogor Indonesia. Based on the total plate counts, 35.2% of the fresh products showed a good to average quality. Salmonellae were detected in 24.8% of the samples examined. Chicken cuts were found as the most contaminated (52.5%), followed by beef (16.7%), fish (10.3%) and vegetables (7.7%). Serotyping of the isolates identified four serotypes: Salmonella Weltevreden, S. Kentucky, S. Typhimurium and S. Paratyphi C. Most of the isolates (n=15) exhibited resistance to erythromycin. Only one isolate of S. Kentucky, isolated from chicken cuts, showed intermediate resistance to chloramphenicol. Ten isolates showed resistance to at least two antibiotics. One strain of S. Weltevreden isolated from beef cuts demonstrated resistance to four antimicrobial agents (erythromycin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin).
      International Food Research Journal 01/2012; 19(1):57-63.

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