Nerve transfer to deltoid muscle using the nerve to the long head of the triceps, part II: A report of 7 cases
ABSTRACT This study reports the results of nerve transfer to the deltoid muscle using the nerve to the long head of the triceps.
Seven patients with an average age of 25 years with loss of shoulder abduction secondary to upper brachial plexus injuries had nerve transfer using the nerve to the long head of the triceps to the anterior branch(es) of the axillary nerve through the posterior approach. The spinal accessory nerve was used simultaneously for nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve. The follow-up period ranged from 18 to 28 months (average, 20 mo).
All patients recovered deltoid power against resistance (M4) at the last follow-up evaluation. Useful functional recovery was achieved in all 7 patients; 5 had excellent recoveries and 2 had good results. The average shoulder abduction was 124 degrees. No notable weakness of elbow extension was observed.
This method is a reliable and effective procedure for deltoid reconstruction in brachial plexus injury (upper-arm type) and should be combined with spinal accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve to obtain good shoulder abduction.
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ABSTRACT: In treating patients with brachial plexus injury, there are no comparative data on the outcomes of nerve grafts or nerve transfers for isolated upper trunk or C5-C6-C7 root injuries. The purpose of our study was to compare, with systematic review, the outcomes for modern intraplexal nerve transfers for shoulder and elbow function with autogenous nerve grafting for upper brachial plexus traumatic injuries. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies in which patients had surgery for traumatic upper brachial plexus palsy within one year of injury and with a minimum follow-up of twelve months. Strength and shoulder and elbow motion were assessed as outcome measures. The Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare outcomes, with an alpha level of 0.05. Thirty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Two hundred and forty-seven (83%) and 286 (96%) of 299 patients with nerve transfers achieved elbow flexion strength of grade M4 or greater and M3 or greater, respectively, compared with thirty-two (56%) and forty-seven (82%) of fifty-seven patients with nerve grafts (p < 0.05). Forty (74%) of fifty-four patients with dual nerve transfers for shoulder function had shoulder abduction strength of grade M4 or greater compared with twenty (35%) of fifty-seven patients with nerve transfer to a single nerve and thirteen (46%) of twenty-eight patients with nerve grafts (p < 0.05). The average shoulder abduction and external rotation was 122° (range, 45° to 170°) and 108° (range, 60° to 140°) after dual nerve transfers and 50° (range, 0° to 100°) and 45° (range, 0° to 140°) in patients with nerve transfers to a single nerve. In patients with demonstrated complete traumatic upper brachial plexus injuries of C5-C6, the pooled international data strongly favors dual nerve transfer over traditional nerve grafting for restoration of improved shoulder and elbow function. These data may be helpful to surgeons considering intraoperative options, particularly in cases in which the native nerve root or trunk may appear less than optimal, or when long nerve grafts are contemplated.The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 05/2011; 93(9):819-29. DOI:10.2106/JBJS.I.01602 · 4.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: In treating patients with brachial plexus injury, there are no comparative data on the outcomes of nerve
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ABSTRACT: Restoration of extremity function following nerve injury is often unpredictable. Nerve transfers in the upper extremity are important techniques in the management of many types of peripheral nerve injury. The physiologic principles of nerve transfer lead to the indications for use. The elements of planning and execution of common nerve transfers are presented in this article.Hand Clinics 03/2000; 16(1):131-9, ix. DOI:10.1016/j.jassh.2004.06.011 · 1.07 Impact Factor