Immune response to laparoscopic bowel injury.
ABSTRACT Laparoscopic bowel injuries are rare but potentially fatal if recognition is delayed. Unlike the situation after open surgery, patients with unrecognized bowel injury after laparoscopy do not present with the typical "acute surgical abdomen." We investigated monocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte apoptosis as indicators of the immune response and whether this response is stimulated or suppressed by laparoscopic bowel injury compared with bowel injury induced during open surgery.
After an animal protocol was approved, laparoscopy was performed in a rabbit model. A total of 44 animals were divided into four groups of 11 rabbits each. Laparoscopic bowel injury was created using 30-W electrocautery at 0 (control), 1, and 5 hours after induction of pneumoperitoneum. Bowel injury was created in the fourth group during open laparotomy. Animals were euthanized at 0, 1 day, 1 week, or 2 weeks after surgery. Apoptosis was assessed by staining the nuclei of blood cells with H-33342 dye.
At 1 week, neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte apoptosis levels were 2.4- to 5-fold lower after laparoscopy (1-hour pneumoperitoneum) compared with open surgery. However, at 2 weeks, the percentage of apoptosis had equalized in the two groups. Interestingly, with longer laparoscopic procedures (5 hours), the percentage of apoptosis at 0 and 1 day more closely approached that seen after open surgery. At 2 weeks, there was a significant difference in apoptosis levels in all cell types between the experimental groups compared with controls (P < 0.001). No animals undergoing a 5-hour open procedure survived to 2 weeks after bowel injury.
Open surgery resulted in a significant increase in programmed cell death compared with controls in the immediate postoperative period following bowel injury. Laparoscopic surgery produced a delayed response and after 2 weeks with bowel perforation approached open surgery levels. The difference in the degree of cellular death may be secondary to a smaller degree of stimulation of the immune response in laparoscopic surgery.
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ABSTRACT: Bowel injury is an uncommon, although potentially devastating, intraoperative laparoscopic complication. Questions have been raised about the possible use of a tissue adhesive to repair injured bowel. We compared glued repair and sutured repair of both large bowel (LB) and small bowel (SB) electrosurgical injuries in a rabbit model. Pneumoperitoneum was obtained, and four laparoscopic ports were placed in each of 48 New Zealand rabbits. The hook electrode was used in a specified manner to create an equal number of uniform full-thickness injuries to either the SB or the LB. Laparoscopic repair was performed with a 3-0 silk Lembert suture (LS), fibrin glue (FG), or BioGlue (BG), or repair was not performed (i.e., no repair, NR); the animals were monitored for 3 weeks. Adverse clinical outcomes and findings at laparotomy were recorded. Pathologic assessment included an objective scaled evaluation of the intensity of the inflammatory response and degree of healing. In the SB injury group, deteriorating clinical condition necessitated early euthanasia in one animal repaired with FG, one animal repaired with BG, and two animals with NR. LS repair animals had no adverse clinical outcomes. The LB injury group had no adverse clinical outcomes regardless of the method of repair, including the control group. Of the animals that survived for 3 weeks, the animals repaired with BG had more intraabdominal adhesions (100%) than LS (33%), FG (55%), and NR (50%) (p = 0.001). The pathologic assessment revealed that BG induced a more intense inflammatory response (p < 0.05). In the rabbit, suture repair of an electrosurgical SB injury appears to have improved outcomes when compared with a glued repair. In contrast, LB injury responded well to any form of treatment. The data suggest that suture is superior to biological glues when dealing with a laparoscopic electrosurgical bowel injury.Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 03/2009; 23(3):535-40. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study was planned to evaluate wheth-er possible changes in the hematological parameters and the biochemical markers can be used to detect obstruction-induced (strangulated) intestinal ischemia. Materials and Methods: Forty rats divided into five groups underwent the following procedures: Group 1 rats were treated with only laparotomy (sham-operated con-trols). To the strangulated hernia groups surgical induc-tion of strangulated intestinal obstruction was performed. Tissue and blood samples were taken at 30 minutes (group 2), 2nd hour (group 3), 4th hour (group 4) and 6th hour (group 5) respectively, and then LDH, CPK, ALP, AST, ALT, D-dimer levels and blood cells counts were measured and histopathological examination was done. Results: Focal mucosal necrosis accompanied was con-firmed by histological findings in the strangulated intestinal ischemia group after second hour. Serum D-dimer, ALT, ALP, CPK levels and neutrophil count became elevated at second hour, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: In patients with hernia, after reduction of the intestinal hernia, raised levels of serum D-dimer, ALT, ALP, CPK levels and neutrophil count may indicate the pres-ence of a bowel ischemia. However, more comprehen-sive clinical studies are required to evaluate the potential survival benefit by using the laboratory tests as a marker and/or a useful diagnostic tool of the need for laparotomy.Trakya Universitesi Tip Fakultesi Dergisi - TRAK UNIV TIP FAK DERG. 01/2009;
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ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic surgery is associated with a more favorable clinical outcome than that of conventional open surgery. This might be related to the magnitude of the tissue trauma. The aim of the present study was to examine the differences of the neuroendocrine and inflammatory responses between the two surgical techniques. Twenty-four patients with no major medical disease were randomly assigned to undergo laparoscopic (n = 13) or abdominal hysterectomy (n = 11). Venous blood samples were collected and we measured the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), CRP and cortisol at the time before and after skin incision, at the end of peritoneum closure and at 1 h and 24 h after operation. The laparoscopic hysterectomy group demonstrated less of an inflammatory response in terms of the serum IL-6 and CRP responses than did the abdominal hysterectomy group, and the laparoscopic hysterectomy group had a shorter hospital stay (P < 0.05). The peak serum IL-6 (P < 0.05) and CRP concentrations were significantly less increased in the laparoscopic group as compared with that of the abdominal hysterectomy group (P < 0.05), while the serum cortisol concentration showed a similar time course and changes and there were no significant difference between the groups. The response of interleukin-6 showed a significant correlation with the response of CRP (r = 0.796; P < 0.05). The laparoscopic surgical procedure leaves the endocrine metabolic response largely unaltered as compared with that of open abdominal hysterectomy, but it reduces the inflammatory response as measured by the IL-6 and CRP levels.Korean journal of anesthesiology 10/2010; 59(4):265-9.