Long-term symptomatic status of bipolar I vs. bipolar II disorders
ABSTRACT Weekly affective symptom severity and polarity were compared in 135 bipolar I (BP I) and 71 bipolar II (BP II) patients during up to 20 yr of prospective symptomatic follow-up. The course of BP I and BP II was chronic; patients were symptomatic approximately half of all follow-up weeks (BP I 46.6% and BP II 55.8% of weeks). Most bipolar disorder research has concentrated on episodes of MDD and mania and yet minor and subsyndromal symptoms are three times more common during the long-term course. Weeks with depressive symptoms predominated over manichypomanic symptoms in both disorders (31) in BP I and BP II at 371 in a largely depressive course (depressive symptoms=59.1% of weeks vs. hypomanic=1.9% of weeks). BP I patients had more weeks of cyclingmixed polarity, hypomanic and subsyndromal hypomanic symptoms. Weekly symptom severity and polarity fluctuated frequently within the same bipolar patient, in which the longitudinal symptomatic expression of BP I and BP II is dimensional in nature involving all levels of affective symptom severity of mania and depression. Although BP I is more severe, BP II with its intensely chronic depressive features is not simply the lesser of the bipolar disorders; it is also a serious illness, more so than previously thought (for instance, as described in DSM-IV and ICP-10). It is likely that this conventional view is the reason why BP II patients were prescribed pharmacological treatments significantly less often when acutely symptomatic and during intervals between episodes. Taken together with previous research by us on the long-term structure of unipolar depression, we submit that the thrust of our work during the past decade supports classic notions of a broader affective disorder spectrum, bringing bipolarity and recurrent unipolarity closer together. However the genetic variation underlying such a putative spectrum remains to be clarified.
SourceAvailable from: Davide Dulcis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a unique disorder that transcends domains of function since the same patient can exhibit depression or mania, states with polar opposite mood symptoms. During depression, people feel helplessness, reduced energy, and risk aversion, while with mania behaviors include grandiosity, increased energy, less sleep, and risk preference. The neural mechanism(s) underlying each state are gaining clarity, with catecholaminergic disruption seen during mania, and cholinergic dysfunction during depression. The fact that the same patient cycles/switches between these states is the defining characteristic of BD however. Of greater importance therefore, is the mechanism(s) underlying cycling from one state - and its associated neural changes - to another, considered the 'holy grail' of BD research. Herein, we review studies investigating triggers that induce switching to these states. By identifying such triggers, researchers can study neural mechanisms underlying each state and importantly how such mechanistic changes can occur in the same subject. Current animal models of this switch are also discussed, from submissive- and dominant-behaviors to kindling effects. Focus however, is placed on how seasonal changes can induce manic and depressive states in BD sufferers. Importantly, changing photoperiod lengths can induce local switches in neurotransmitter expression in normal animals, from increased catecholaminergic expression during periods of high activity, to increased somatostatin and corticotrophin releasing factor during periods of low activity. Identifying susceptibilities to this switch would enable the development of targeted animal models. From animal models, targeted treatments could be developed and tested that would minimize the likelihood of switching. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.European journal of pharmacology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.03.019 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar spectrum disorders are frequently under-recognized and/or misdiagnosed in various settings. Several influential publications recommend the routine screening of bipolar disorder. A systematic review and meta-analysis of accuracy studies for the bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale (BSDS), the hypomania checklist (HCL-32) and the mood disorder questionnaire (MDQ) were performed.Methods The Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane, PsycINFO and SCOPUS databases were searched. Studies were included if the accuracy properties of the screening measures were determined against a DSM or ICD-10 structured diagnostic interview. The QUADAS-2 tool was used to rate bias.ResultsFifty three original studies met inclusion criteria (N=21,542). At recommended cutoffs, summary sensitivities were 81%, 66% and 69%, while specificities were 67%, 79% and 86% for the HCL-32, MDQ, and BSDS in psychiatric services, respectively. The HCL-32 was more accurate than the MDQ for the detection of type II bipolar disorder in mental health care centers (P=0.018). At a cutoff of 7, the MDQ had a summary sensitivity of 43% and a summary specificity of 95% for detection of bipolar disorder in primary care or general population settings.LimitationsMost studies were performed in mental health care settings. Several included studies had a high risk of bias.Conclusions Although accuracy properties of the three screening instruments did not consistently differ in mental health care services, the HCL-32 was more accurate than the MDQ for the detection of type II BD. More studies in other settings (for example, in primary care) are necessary.Journal of Affective Disorders 10/2014; 172. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.10.024 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Long-term symptomatic status in persons with major depressive and bipolar disorders treated clinically is not well established, although mood disorders are leading causes of disability worldwide. AIMS: To pool data on long-term morbidity, by type and as a proportion of time-at-risk, based on published studies and previously unreported data. METHODS: We carried out systematic, computerized literature searches for information on percentage of time in specific morbid states in persons treated clinically and diagnosed with recurrent major depressive or bipolar I or II disorders, and incorporated new data from one of our centers. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 25 samples involving 2479 unipolar depressive and 3936 bipolar disorder subjects (total N=6415) treated clinically for 9.4 years. Proportions of time ill were surprisingly and similarly high across diagnoses: unipolar depressive (46.0%), bipolar I (43.7%), and bipolar II (43.2%) disorders, and morbidity was predominantly depressive: unipolar (100%), bipolar-II (81.2%), bipolar-I (69.6%). Percent-time-ill did not differ between UP and BD subjects, but declined significantly with longer exposure times. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that depressive components of all major affective disorders accounted for 86% of the 43-46% of time in affective morbidity that occurred despite availability of effective treatments. These results encourage redoubled efforts to improve treatments for depression and adherence to their long-term useJournal of Affective Disorders 03/2015; 3(178):71-78. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.02.011. · 3.71 Impact Factor