Glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation in cardiac hypertrophy--why so unbalanced?
ABSTRACT Cardiac hypertrophy, induced by chronic pressure or volume overload, is associated with abnormalities in energy metabolism as well as characteristic increases in muscle mass and alterations in the structure of the heart. Hypertrophied hearts display increased rates of glycolysis and overall glucose utilization, but rates of pyruvate oxidation do not rise in step with rates of pyruvate generation. Glycolysis and glucose oxidation, therefore, become markedly less 'coupled' in hypertrophied hearts than in non-hypertrophied hearts. Because the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) contributes so powerfully to the control of glucose oxidation, we set out to test the hypothesis that the function of PDC is impaired in cardiac hypertrophy. In this review we describe evidence indicating that the alterations in glucose metabolism in hypertrophied hearts cannot be explained simply by changes in PDC expression or control. Additional mechanisms that may lead to an altered balance of pyruvate metabolism in cardiac hypertrophy are discussed, with commentaries on possible changes in pyruvate transport, NADH shuttles, lactate dehydrogenase, and amino acid metabolism.
Article: Proteomic analysis by SILAC and 2D-DIGE reveals radiation-induced endothelial response: four key pathways.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Epidemiological data show that ionising radiation increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. The endothelium is one of the main targets of radiation-induced damage. Rapid radiation-induced alterations in the biological processes were investigated after exposure to a clinically relevant radiation dose (2.5 Gy gamma radiation). The changes in protein expression were determined using the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 as a model. Two complementary proteomic approaches, SILAC (Stable Isotope Labelling with Amino acids in Cell culture) and 2D-DIGE (Two Dimensional Difference-in-Gel-Electrophoresis) were used. The proteomes of the endothelial cells were analysed 4h and 24h after irradiation. Differentially expressed proteins were identified and quantified by MALDI-TOF/TOF and LTQ Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry. The deregulated proteins were mainly categorised in four key pathways: (i) glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and synthesis/degradation of ketone bodies, (ii) oxidative phosphorylation, (iii) Rho-mediated cell motility and (iv) non-homologous end joining. We suggest that these alterations facilitate the repair processes needed to overcome the stress caused by irradiation and are indicative of the vascular damage leading to radiation-induced cardio- and cerebrovascular impairment.Journal of proteomics 02/2012; 75(8):2319-30. · 5.07 Impact Factor