Corticosteroids and immunomodulators: postoperative infectious complication risk in inflammatory bowel disease patients.
ABSTRACT Many patients with inflammatory bowel disease receive corticosteroids and 6-mercaptopurine/azathioprine during elective bowel surgery. We investigated the postoperative infection risk for patients undergoing elective bowel surgery who were receiving corticosteroids and/or 6-mercaptopurine/azathioprine before surgery compared with patients not receiving these medications.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 159 patients with inflammatory bowel disease who underwent elective bowel surgery. There were 56 patients receiving corticosteroids alone, 52 patients receiving 6-mercaptopurine/azathioprine alone or with corticosteroids, and 51 patients receiving neither corticosteroids nor 6-mercaptopurine/azathioprine. Postoperative infectious complications to time of discharge were categorized into major and minor complications.
Patients receiving corticosteroids had an adjusted odds ratio for any and major infectious complications of 3.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-10.97) and 5.54 (95% CI, 1.12-27.26), respectively. The adjusted odds ratio for patients receiving 6-mercaptopurine/azathioprine for any and major infectious complications was 1.68 (95% CI, 0.65-4.27) and 1.20 (95% CI, 0.37-3.94), respectively.
Preoperative use of corticosteroids in patients with inflammatory bowel disease who are undergoing elective bowel surgery is associated with an increased risk of postoperative infectious complications. 6-Mercaptopurine/azathioprine alone and the addition of 6-mercaptopurine/azathioprine for patients receiving corticosteroids was not found to significantly increase the risk of postoperative infectious complications.
- SourceAvailable from: Alaa El-Hussuna[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There are concerns that biologic treatments or immunomodulation may negatively influence anastomotic healing. This study investigates the relationship between these treatments and anastomotic complications after surgery for Crohn's disease. Retrospective study on 417 operations for Crohn's disease performed at four Danish hospitals in 2000-2007. Thirty-two patients were preoperatively treated with biologics and 166 were on immunomodulation. In total, 154 were treated with corticosteroids of which 66 had prednisolone 20 mg or more. Anastomotic complications occurred at 13% of the operations. There were no difference in patients on biologic treatment (9% vs. 12% (p = 0.581)) or in patients on immunomodulation (10% vs. 14% (p = 0.263)). Patients on 20 mg prednisolone or more had more anastomotic complications (20% vs. 11% (p = 0.04)). Anastomotic complications were more frequent after a colo-colic anastomosis than after an entero-enteric or entero-colic (33% vs. 12% (p = 0.013)). Patients with anastomotic complications were older (40 years vs. 35 years (p = 0.014)), had longer disease duration (7.5 years vs. 4 years (p = 0.04)), longer operation time (155 min vs. 115 min (p = 0.018)) and more operative bleeding (200 ml vs. 130 ml (p = 0.029)). Multivariate analysis revealed preoperative treatment with prednisolone 20 mg or more, operation time and a colo-colic anastomosis as negative predictors of anastomotic complications. Preoperative biologic treatment or immunomodulation had no influence on anastomotic complications. The study confirms previous findings of corticosteroids and a colo-colic anastomosis as negative predictors and also that surgical complexity, as expressed by bleeding and operation time, may contribute to anastomotic complications.Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2012; 47(6):662-8. DOI:10.3109/00365521.2012.660540 · 2.33 Impact Factor
- Revista de gastroenterologia de Mexico 71(3):351-401.
Article: Hepatic encephalopathy.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome which can develop in the course of chronic and acute liver disease. It is characterized by cognitive and motoric deficits of varying severity. HE is functional in nature, potentially reversible and is thought to reflect the clinical manifestation of a low-grade cerebral edema, which exacerbates in response to ammonia and other precipitating factors, such as electrolyte disturbances, bleeding, infections, high protein diet, diuretics and sedatives. The action of these rather heterogeneous factors integrates at the level of oxidative/nitrosative stress and astrocyte swelling, which is associated with an oxidative/nitrosative stress response in the brain with consequences for signal transduction, neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity and oscillatory networks in the brain. Manifest HE is diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms according to the West Haven criteria, whereas diagnosis of minimal HE requires psychometric or neurophysiological testings. Here objective and reproducible measures to assess HE severity, such as critical flicker frequency or evoked potentials are superior to paper pencil tests. Identification and treatment of precipitating factors is the mainstay of HE therapy. Also intravenous ornithine aspartate, vegetable protein, oral branched chain amino acids, lactulose enemas and liver transplantation are considered to be effective. Whereas the efficacy of oral lactulose and non-resorbable antibiotics in the treatment of an acute HE attack is under debate, the beneficial effect of lactulose and rifaximin in the secondary HE prophylaxis has recently been established.Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica 73(4):457-64. · 0.58 Impact Factor