Article

A review of treatment of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

UCLA School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for the Health Sciences, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1740, USA.
Psychoneuroendocrinology (Impact Factor: 5.14). 09/2003; 28 Suppl 3:39-53. DOI: 10.1016/S0306-4530(03)00096-9
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and, more recently, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) have been studied extensively over the last 20 years. The defining criteria for diagnosis of the disorders according to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) include at least one moderate to severe mood symptom and one physical symptom for the diagnosis of PMS and by DSM IV criteria a total of 5 symptoms with 1 severe mood symptom for the diagnosis of PMDD. There must be functional impairment attributed to the symptoms. The symptoms must be present for one to two weeks premenstrually with relief by day 4 of menses and should be documented prospectively for at least two cycles using a daily rating form. Nonpharmacologic management with some evidence for efficacy include cognitive behavioral relaxation therapy, aerobic exercise, as well as calcium, magnesium, vitamin B(6) L-tryptophan supplementation or a complex carbohydrate drink. Pharmacologic management with at least ten randomized controlled trials to support efficacy include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors administered daily or premenstrually and serotonergic tricyclic antidepressants. Anxiolytics and potassium sparing diuretics have demonstrated mixed results in the literature. Hormonal therapy is geared towards producing anovulation. There is good clinical evidence for GnRH analogs with addback hormonal therapy, danocrine, and estradiol implants or patches with progestin to protect the endometrium. Oral contraceptive pills prevent ovulation and should be effective for the treatment of PMS/PMDD. However, limited evidence does not support efficacy for oral contraceptive agents containing progestins derived from 19-nortestosterone. The combination of the estrogen and progestin may produce symptoms similar to PMS, such as water retention and irritability. There is preliminary evidence that a new oral contraceptive pill containing low-dose estrogen and the progestin drospirenone, a spironolactone analog, instead of a 19-nortestosterone derivative can reduce symptoms of water retention and other side effects related to estrogen excess. The studies are in progress, however, preliminary evidence suggests that the drospirenone-containing pill called Yasmin may be effective the treatment of PMDD.

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