Weight gain in the treatment of mood disorders.
ABSTRACT Overweight and obesity have become an urgent public health problem in the United States: approximately 61% of the adult population (97 million adults) are overweight or obese, where overweight is defined as a body mass index (BMI) >/= 25 and obesity is defined as a BMI >/= 30. Overweight and obesity increase the risk for developing many serious chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and certain cancers. Increased morbidity due to obesity-related disorders begins within the normal weight range. Weight gain in adulthood per se, even in individuals who are normal weight, has deleterious health effects. Medications, particularly those commonly used in psychiatry and neurology, are a significant iatrogenic source of overweight and obesity. The weight gain potential of prescription medications should be considered in order to enhance patient compliance and reduce the risk of metabolic sequelae of weight gain. This article provides an overview of the weight-gain potential of several classes of drugs commonly used in psychiatric practice and considerations for clinicians in prescribing these medications.
- SourceAvailable from: Archana Singh-Manoux[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The use of anti-depressant medication has been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the association between anti-depressant medication use and a marker of low grade systemic inflammation as a potential pathway linking anti-depressant use and CVD in two population based studies. Data were collected in a representative sample of 8131 community dwelling adults (aged 47.4±15.9 years, 46.7% male) from the Scottish Health Surveys (SHS). The use of anti-depressant medication was coded according to the British National Formulary and blood was drawn for the measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP). In a second study, we attempted to replicate our findings using longitudinal data from the Whitehall II study (n=4584, aged 55.5±5.9 years, mean follow-up 5.5 years). Antidepressants were used in 5.6% of the SHS sample, with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) being the most common. There was a higher risk of elevated CRP (>3 mg/L) in users of tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) medication (multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.52, 95% CI, 1.07-2.15), but not in SSRI users (multivariate adjusted OR=1.07, 95% CI, 0.81-1.42). A longitudinal association between any antidepressant use and subsequent CRP was confirmed in the Whitehall cohort. In summary, the use of anti-depressants was associated with elevated levels of systemic inflammation independently from the symptoms of mental illness and cardiovascular co-morbidity. This might be a potential mechanism through which antidepressant medication increases CVD risk. Further data are required to explore the effects of dosage and duration of antidepressant treatment.Brain Behavior and Immunity 01/2011; 25(1):168-73. DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2010.09.013 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The extent of weight changes in depressed patients who use atypical antipsychotics (AAP) as augmentation could not be easily predicted due to weight related symptoms of depression and the interaction with antidepressants which have weight reducing effects. Patients were treated with either antidepressants augmented with AAP for more than 2 weeks (AAP group, n = 100) or only with antidepressants (non-AAP group, n = 172) during the admission between 2002 and 2006, and the differences in weight were analyzed. Mean weight gains of AAP group were significantly higher than those of non-AAP group (2.98 +/- 1.87 kg vs. 1.70 +/- 1.85 kg, p = 0.001). When stratified by antidepressants, the significant difference between the two groups was shown among the subjects who had taken serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but not mirtazapine and venlafaxine (3.42 +/- 2.01 kg vs. 1.48 +/- 1.79 kg, p < 0.001). Comparing among different combinations in AAP group showed that subjects treated with SSRIs and olanzapine had the greatest weight gain (4.21 +/- 1.90 kg), significantly higher than that of the other subgroups (p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that AAP used in patients with depression could severely aggravate preexisting weight-related problems of antidepressants use and the possibility that the combined use with specific antidepressants could have a unique effect on weight by drug-drug interactions.Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 03/2009; 24(2):135-43. DOI:10.1002/hup.1001 · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of ziprasidone monotherapy for major depressive disorder (MDD) with and without psychomotor symptoms. In accordance with the sequential parallel comparison design, 106 MDD patients (age 44.0±10.7 years; female, 43.4%) were recruited and a post-hoc analysis was carried out on 12-week double-blind treatment with either ziprasidone (40-160 mg/day) or placebo, divided into two phases of 6 weeks each to the assigned treatment sequences, drug/drug, placebo/placebo, and placebo/drug. Psychomotor symptoms were evaluated on the basis of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview at baseline. Efficacy assessments, on the basis of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Scale, Self-Rated (QIDS-SR), were performed every week throughout the trial. In phase I, ziprasidone monotherapy produced significant improvement in patients with psychomotor symptoms compared with placebo on the basis of HDRS-17 (F=5.95, P=0.017) and QIDS-SR (F=5.26, P=0.025) scores, whereas no significant changes were found in HDRS-17 (F=2.32, P=0.15) and QIDS-SR (F=3.70, P=0.074) scores in patients without psychomotor symptoms. In phase II, ziprasidone monotherapy produced no significant differences compared with placebo. In the pooled analysis, ziprasidone monotherapy showed significance according to QIDS-SR (Z=2.00, P=0.046) and a trend toward statistical significance according to the HDRS-17 (Z=1.66, P=0.10) in patients with psychomotor symptoms. Ziprasidone monotherapy may produce significant improvement compared with placebo in MDD patients with psychomotor symptoms.International clinical psychopharmacology 05/2014; 29(6). DOI:10.1097/YIC.0000000000000039 · 3.10 Impact Factor