Characterization of group B streptococcal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: surface localization, enzymatic activity, and protein-protein interactions.
ABSTRACT During characterization of the surface antigens of serotype III group B streptococci (GBS), a protein with an apparent M(r) of approximately 173,500 migrating on a SDS--polyacrylamide gel was found to have an N-terminal amino acid sequence identical to that of the plasmin receptor (Plr) of group A streptococci, a surface-localized glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). This work begins to characterize GBS GAPDH and to assess its functional activity on the cell surface. The 1.0-kb gapC gene of GBS was amplified by PCR. plr and gapC demonstrated 87% homology. An anti-Plr monoclonal antibody reacted with GBS whole cells, suggesting GBS GAPDH is surface localized. Multiple serotypes of GBS demonstrated functional GAPDH on their surfaces. The anti-Plr monoclonal antibody recognized GBS protein bands of approximately 41 and 173.5 kDa, by Western blot. Presumably, these represent monomeric and tetrameric forms of the GAPDH molecule. GBS GAPDH was demonstrated by Western blot analysis to interact with lys- and glu-plasminogens. Fluid-phase GBS GAPDH interacted, by means of ELISA, with immobilized lys-plasminogen, glu-plasminogen, actin, and fibrinogen. Enzymatically active GAPDH, capable of binding cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins, is expressed on the surface of GBS.
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ABSTRACT: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a conserved cytosolic enzyme, which plays a key role in glycolysis. GAPDH catalyzes the oxidative phosphorylation of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate using NAD or NADP as a cofactor. In addition, GAPDH localized on the surface of some bacteria is thought to be involved in macromolecular interactions and bacterial pathogenesis. GAPDH on the surface of group B streptococcus (GBS) enhances bacterial virulence and is a potential vaccine candidate. Here, the crystal structure of GBS GAPDH from Streptococcus agalactiae in complex with NAD is reported at 2.46 Å resolution. Although the overall structure of GBS GAPDH is very similar to those of other GAPDHs, the crystal structure reveals a significant difference in the area spanning residues 294–307, which appears to be more acidic. The amino-acid sequence of this region of GBS GAPDH is also distinct compared with other GAPDHs. This region therefore may be of interest as an immunogen for vaccine development.Acta Crystallographica Section F. 10/2014; 70(10).
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ABSTRACT: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) is highly adapted to humans, where it is a normal constituent of the intestinal and vaginal flora. Yet, GBS has highly invasive potential and causes excessive inflammation, sepsis, and death at the beginning of life, in the elderly and in diabetic patients. Thus, GBS is a model pathobiont that thrives in the healthy host, but has not lost its potential virulence during coevolution with mankind. It remains incompletely understood how the innate immune system contains GBS in the natural niches, the intestinal and genital tracts, and which molecular events underlie breakdown of mucocutaneous resistance. Newborn infants between days 7 and 90 of life are at risk of a particularly striking sepsis manifestation (late-onset disease), where the transition from colonization to invasion and dissemination, and thus from health to severe sepsis is typically fulminant and not predictable. The great majority of late-onset sepsis cases are caused by one clone, GBS ST17, which expresses HvgA as a signature virulence factor and adhesin. In mice, HvgA promotes the crossing of both the mucosal and the blood-brain barrier. Expression levels of HvgA and other GBS virulence factors, such as pili and toxins, are regulated by the upstream two-component control system CovR/S. This in turn is modulated by acidic epithelial pH, high glucose levels, and during the passage through the mouse intestine. After invasion, GBS has the ability to subvert innate immunity by mechanisms like glycerinaldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-dependent induction of IL-10 and β-protein binding to the inhibitory phagocyte receptors sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 5 and 14. On the host side, sensing of GBS nucleic acids and lipopeptides by both Toll-like receptors and the inflammasome appears to be critical for host resistance against GBS. Yet, comprehensive models on the interplay between GBS and human immune cells at the colonizing site are just emerging.Frontiers in Immunology 10/2014; 5:1-11.