Characterization of group B streptococcal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: surface localization, enzymatic activity, and protein-protein interactions.
ABSTRACT During characterization of the surface antigens of serotype III group B streptococci (GBS), a protein with an apparent M(r) of approximately 173,500 migrating on a SDS--polyacrylamide gel was found to have an N-terminal amino acid sequence identical to that of the plasmin receptor (Plr) of group A streptococci, a surface-localized glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). This work begins to characterize GBS GAPDH and to assess its functional activity on the cell surface. The 1.0-kb gapC gene of GBS was amplified by PCR. plr and gapC demonstrated 87% homology. An anti-Plr monoclonal antibody reacted with GBS whole cells, suggesting GBS GAPDH is surface localized. Multiple serotypes of GBS demonstrated functional GAPDH on their surfaces. The anti-Plr monoclonal antibody recognized GBS protein bands of approximately 41 and 173.5 kDa, by Western blot. Presumably, these represent monomeric and tetrameric forms of the GAPDH molecule. GBS GAPDH was demonstrated by Western blot analysis to interact with lys- and glu-plasminogens. Fluid-phase GBS GAPDH interacted, by means of ELISA, with immobilized lys-plasminogen, glu-plasminogen, actin, and fibrinogen. Enzymatically active GAPDH, capable of binding cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins, is expressed on the surface of GBS.
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ABSTRACT: Group B streptococcal (GBS) disease in nonpregnant adults is increasing, particularly in elderly persons and those with significant underlying diseases. Diabetes, neurological impairment, and cirrhosis increase risk for invasive GBS disease. Skin, soft-tissue, and osteoarticular infections, pneumonia, and urosepsis are common presentations. Meningitis and endocarditis are less common but associated with serious morbidity and mortality. Disease is frequently nosocomial and may be related to the placement of an iv catheter. Recurrent infection occurs in 4.3% of survivors. Capsular serotypes Ia, III, and V account for the majority of disease in nonpregnant adults. Although group B streptococci are susceptible to penicillin, minimum inhibitory concentrations are 4-fold to 8-fold higher than for group A streptococci. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin is increasing. The role of antibodies in protection against GBS disease in nonpregnant adults is unresolved. However, the immunogenicity of GBS vaccines being developed for prevention of neonatal disease should be assessed for adults who are at risk.Clinical Infectious Diseases 09/2001; 33(4):556-61. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We recently identified an enzymatically active glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 126.96.36.199; GAPDH) as a major protein on the surface of group A streptococci (SDH), which exhibits multiple binding activity to various mammalian proteins. We now report that the SDH molecule also functions as an ADP-ribosylating enzyme, which, in the presence of NAD, is auto-ADP-ribosylated. In a crude cell wall extract of group A streptococci, SDH is the only protein that is ADP-ribosylated. SDH found in the streptococcal cytoplasmic fraction could not be ADP-ribosylated in the presence of NAD. Treatment of ADP-ribosylated SDH with the cytoplasmic fraction removed the ADP-ribose from SDH, suggesting the presence of an ADP-ribosyl hydrolase in the cytoplasmic compartment. The covalent linkage of ADP-ribose to SDH was stable to neutral hydroxylamine, sensitive to HgCl2, and inhibitable by free cysteine, indicating that the modification was at a cysteine residue of SDH. In addition to its auto-ADP-ribosylation activity, purified SDH or streptococcal cell wall extracts were able to transfer the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD specifically to free cysteine, resulting in a true thioglycosidic linkage. Treatment of purified SDH or the crude cell wall extract with sodium nitroprusside, which spontaneously generates nitric oxide, was found to stimulate the ADP-ribosylation of SDH in a time-dependent manner. ADP-ribosylation and nitric oxide treatment inhibited the GAPDH activity of SDH. Since ADP-ribosylation and nitric oxide are involved in signal transduction events, the ADP-ribosylating activity of SDH may enable communication between host and parasite during infection by group A streptococci.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/1993; 90(17):8154-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The group B Streptococcus, an important cause of invasive infections in the neonate, is classified into four major serotypes (Ia, Ib, II, and III) based on the structure of the polysaccharide capsule. Since the capsule is a known virulence factor, it has been extensively studied, in particular in type III strains, which cause the majority of invasive infections. Two cell surface proteins, alpha and beta, have also been studied in detail since they confer protective immunity, but these proteins are usually not expressed by type III strains. We describe here a cell surface protein, designated protein Rib (resistance to proteases, immunity, group B), that confers protective immunity and is expressed by most strains of type III. Protein Rib was first identified as a distinct 95-kD protein in extracts of a type III strain, and was purified to homogeneity from that strain. Rabbit antiserum to protein Rib was used to demonstrate that it is expressed on the cell surface of 31 out of 33 type III strains, but only on 1 out of 25 strains representing the other three serotypes. Mouse protection tests showed that antiserum to protein Rib protects against lethal infection with three different strains expressing this antigen, including a strain representing a recently identified high virulence type III clone. Protein Rib is immunologically unrelated to the alpha and beta proteins, but shares several features with the alpha protein. Most importantly, the NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of the Rib and alpha proteins are identical at 6 out of 12 positions. In addition, both protein Rib and the alpha protein are relatively resistant to trypsin (and Rib is also resistant to pepsin) and both proteins vary greatly in size between different clinical isolates. Finally, both protein Rib and the alpha protein exhibit a regular ladderlike pattern in immunoblotting experiments, which may reflect a repetitive structure. Taken together, these data suggest that the Rib and alpha proteins are members of a family of proteins with related structure and function. Since protein Rib confers protective immunity, it may be valuable for the development of a protein vaccine against the group B Streptococcus, an encapsulated bacterium.Journal of Experimental Medicine 07/1993; 177(6):1593-603. · 13.21 Impact Factor