We hypothesized that skeletal muscle histological and biochemical phenotypes aggregate within families.
Nineteen families (78 Caucasians) from the HERITAGE Family Study participated in the study. Proportions and areas of Type I, IIA, and IIX muscle fibers, capillary density, and maximal enzyme activities were determined in biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis obtained in the sedentary state and after a 20-wk endurance-training program.
In the sedentary state, there was evidence for familial resemblance for Type I fiber area (P = 0.007), number of capillaries around Type I and Type IIA fibers (P = 0.04), and Type I and IIA fiber areas per capillary (P = 0.01 and P = 0.04, respectively). Significant familial aggregation (0.05>P > 0.0001) was observed for maximal activities of enzymes of the energy production pathways. With regard to the training response, significant familial aggregation (0.05 > P < 0.0001) was observed for maximal activities of enzymes of the energy production pathways.
These data provide evidence of familial aggregation for enzyme activities of the main energy metabolism pathways of the skeletal muscle in the sedentary state and in response to regular exercise.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscles improve their oxidative fatty acid and glucose metabolism following endurance training, but the magnitude of response varies considerably from person to person. In 20 untrained young women we examined interindividual variability in training responses of metabolic enzymes following 6 weeks of endurance training, sufficient to increase maximal oxygen uptake by 10 ± 8% (mean ± SD). Training led to increases in mitochondrial enzymes [succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; 47 ± 78%), cytochrome c oxidase (52 ± 70%) and ATP synthase (63 ± 69%)] and proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism [3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (69 ± 92%) and fatty acid transporter CD36 (86 ± 31%)]. Increases in enzymes of glucose metabolism [phosphofructokinase (29 ± 94%) and glucose transporter 4 (18 ± 65%)] were not significant. There was no relationship between changes in maximal oxygen uptake and the changes in the metabolic proteins. Considerable interindividual variability was seen in the magnitude of responses. The response of each enzyme was proportional to the change in SDH; individuals with a large increase in SDH also showed high gains in all other enzymes, and vice versa. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α protein content increased after training, but was not correlated with changes in the metabolic proteins. In conclusion, the results revealed co-ordinated adaptation of several metabolic enzymes following endurance training, despite differences between people in the magnitude of response. Differences between individuals in the magnitude of response might reflect the influence of environmental and genetic factors that govern training adaptations.
"hypertrophy might be an important adaptation in some previously untrained people. The inter-individual variability in each of the parameters measured in the present study was large, but the range was similar to that reported in other studies looking at endurance training responses (An et al. 2000; Bouchard et al. 1999; Hautala et al. 2006; Lortie et al. 1984; Prior et al. 2003; Rico-Sanz et al. 2003; Timmons et al. 2005). However , it is evident in Figs. 3 and 4 that even within a group of subjects with similar values of Ratio 1:2 there is still variation in muscle training responses, meaning that the differences in Ratio 1:2 do not explain all the variation in the training adaptations. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is considerable inter-individual variability in adaptations to endurance training. We hypothesised that those individuals with a low local leg-muscle peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak) relative to their whole-body maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) would experience greater muscle training adaptations compared to those with a relatively high VO2peak. 53 untrained young women completed one-leg cycling to measure VO2peak and two-leg cycling to measure VO2max. The one-leg VO2peak was expressed as a ratio of the two-leg VO2max (Ratio(1:2)). Magnetic resonance imaging was used to indicate quadriceps muscle volume. Measurements were taken before and after completion of 6 weeks of supervised endurance training. There was large inter-individual variability in the pre-training Ratio(1:2) and large variability in the magnitude of training adaptations. The pre-training Ratio(1:2) was not related to training-induced changes in VO2max (P = 0.441) but was inversely correlated with changes in one-leg VO2peak and muscle volume (P < 0.05). No relationship was found between the training-induced changes in two-leg VO2max and one-leg VO2peak (r = 0.21; P = 0.129). It is concluded that the local leg-muscle aerobic capacity and Ratio(1:2) vary from person to person and this influences the extent of muscle adaptations following standardised endurance training. These results help to explain why muscle adaptations vary between people and suggest that setting the training stimulus at a fixed percentage of VO2max might not be a good way to standardise the training stimulus to the leg muscles of different people.
"The training response of many cardiorespiratory (Bouchard et al. 1999; An et al. 2000) and muscle-related parameters (Komi et al. 1977; Bouchard et al. 1985; Simoneau et al. 1985; Simoneau & Bouchard, 1989; Leon et al. 2002; Rico-Sanz et al. 2003; An et al. 2005; Boule et al. 2005) is known to vary widely between subjects following well-controlled endurance training, and this is of interest and concern for two reasons. Firstly, the health-related benefits of exercise clearly vary from subject to subject and if the reason for this was known it might be possible to optimize training for each individual. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considerable variability exists between people in their health- and performance-related adaptations to conventional endurance training. We hypothesized that some of this variability might be due to differences in the training stimulus received by the working muscles. In 71 young sedentary women we observed large variations in the ratio of one-leg cycling muscle aerobic capacity (V(O2peak)) to two-leg cycling whole-body maximal oxygen uptake (V(O2max); Ratio(1:2); range 0.58-0.96). The variability in Ratio(1:2) was primarily due to differences between people in one-leg V(O2peak) (r = 0.71, P < 0.0005) and was not related to two-leg V(O2max) (r = 0.15, P = 0.209). Magnetic resonance imaging (n = 30) and muscle biopsy sampling (n = 20) revealed that one-leg V(O2peak) was mainly determined by muscle volume (r = 0.73, P < 0.0005) rather than muscle fibre type or oxidative capacity. A high one-leg V(O2peak) was associated with favourable lipoprotein profiles (P = 0.033, n = 24) but this was not the case for two-leg V(O2max). Calculations based on these data suggest that conventional two-leg exercise at 70% V(O2max) requires subjects with the lowest Ratio(1:2) to work their legs at 60% of single-leg V(O2peak), whilst those with the highest Ratio(1:2) work their legs at only 36% of maximum. It was concluded that endurance training carried out according to current guidelines will result in highly variable training stimuli for the leg muscles and variable magnitudes of adaptation. These conclusions have implications for the prescription of exercise to improve health and for investigations into the genetic basis of muscle adaptations.
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