Barrier-to-autointegration factor plays crucial roles in cell cycle progression and nuclear organization in Drosophila.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181, Japan.
Journal of Cell Science (Impact Factor: 5.33). 10/2003; 116(Pt 18):3811-23. DOI: 10.1242/jcs.00682
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF) is potentially a DNA-bridging protein, which directly associates with inner nuclear membrane proteins carrying LEM domains. These features point to a key role in regulation of nuclear function and organization, dependent on interactions between the nuclear envelope and chromatin. To understand the functions of BAF in vivo, Drosophila baf null mutants generated by P-element-mediated imprecise excision were analyzed. Homozygous null mutants showed a typical mitotic mutant phenotype: lethality at the larval-pupal transition with small brains and missing imaginal discs. Mitotic figures were decreased but a defined anaphase defect as reported for C. elegans RNAi experiments was not observed in these small brains, suggesting a different phase or phases of cell cycle arrest. Specific abnormalities in interphase nuclear structure were frequently found upon electron microscopic examination of baf null mutants, with partial clumping of chromatin and convolution of nuclear shape. At the light microscopic level, grossly aberrant nuclear lamina structure and B-type lamin distribution correlated well with the loss of detectable amounts of BAF protein from nuclei. Together, these data represent evidence of BAF's anticipated function in mediating interactions between the nuclear envelope and interphase chromosomes. We thus conclude that BAF plays essential roles in nuclear organization and that these BAF functions are required in both M phase and interphase of the cell cycle.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Barrier-to-Autointegration Factor (BAF) is a DNA binding protein with multiple cellular functions including the ability to act as a potent defense against vaccinia virus infection. This antiviral function involves BAF's ability to condense double-stranded DNA and subsequently prevent viral DNA replication. In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that dynamic phosphorylation involving the vaccinia B1 kinase and cellular enzymes is likely a key regulator of multiple BAF functions; however the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we analyze how phosphorylation impacts BAF's DNA-binding, subcellular localization, dimerization, and antipoxviral activity through the characterization of BAF phosphomimetic and unphosphorylatable mutants. Our studies demonstrate that increased phosphorylation enhances BAF's mobilization from the nucleus to the cytosol, while dephosphorylation restricts BAF to the nucleus. Phosphorylation also impairs both BAF's dimerization and DNA-binding activity. Furthermore, our studies of BAF's antiviral activity revealed that hyperphosphorylated BAF is unable to suppress viral DNA replication or virus production. Interestingly, the unphosphorylatable BAF mutant, which is capable of binding DNA but localizes predominantly to the nucleus, was also incapable of suppressing viral replication. Thus both DNA-binding and localization are important determinants of BAF's antiviral function. Finally, our examination of how phosphatases are involved in regulating BAF revealed that PP2A dephosphorylates BAF during vaccinia infection, thus counterbalancing the activity of the B1 kinase. Altogether, these data demonstrate that phosphoregulation of BAF by viral and cellular enzymes modulates this protein at multiple molecular levels, thus determining its effectiveness as an antiviral factor and likely other functions as well. The Barrier to Autointegration Factor (BAF) contributes to cellular genomic integrity in multiple ways, the best-characterized of which are as a host defense against cytoplasmic DNA and as a regulator of mitotic nuclear reassembly. Although dynamic phosphorylation involving both viral and cellular enzymes is likely a key regulator of multiple BAF functions; the precise mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that phosphorylation coordinately regulates BAF's DNA-binding, subcellular localization, dimerization, and antipoxviral activity. Overall, our findings provide new insights into how phosphoregulation of BAF modulates this protein at multiple levels and governs its effectiveness as an antiviral factor against foreign DNA.
    Journal of Virology 03/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BAF (Barrier to Autointegration Factor) is a highly conserved DNA binding protein that senses poxviral DNA in the cytoplasm and tightly binds to the viral genome to interfere with DNA replication and transcription. To counteract BAF, a poxviral-encoded protein kinase phosphorylates BAF, which renders BAF unable to bind DNA and allows efficient viral replication to occur. Herein, we examined how BAF phosphorylation is affected by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and tested the ability of BAF to interfere with HSV-1 productive infection. Interestingly, we found that BAF phosphorylation decreases markedly following HSV-1 infection. To determine whether dephosphorylated BAF impacts HSV-1 productive infection, we employed cell lines stably expressing a constitutively unphosphorylated form of BAF (BAF-MAAAQ) and cells overexpressing wild type (wt) BAF for comparison. Although HSV-1 production in cells overexpressing wtBAF was similar to that in cells expressing no additional BAF, viral growth was reduced approximately 80% in the presence of BAF-MAAAQ. Experiments were also performed to determine the mechanism of the antiviral activity of BAF with the following results. BAF-MAAAQ was localized to the nucleus, whereas wtBAF was dispersed throughout cells prior to infection. Following infection, wtBAF becomes dephosphorylated and relocalized to the nucleus. Additionally, BAF was associated with the HSV-1 genome during infection, with BAF-MAAAQ associated to a greater extent than wtBAF. Importantly, unphosphorylated BAF inhibited both viral DNA replication and gene expression. For example, expression of two regulatory proteins, ICP0 and VP16, were substantially reduced in cells expressing BAF-MAAAQ. However, other viral genes were not dramatically affected suggesting that expression of certain viral genes can be differentially regulated by unphosphorylated BAF. Collectively, these results suggest that BAF can act in a phosphorylation-regulated manner to impair HSV-1 transcription and/or DNA replication, which is similar to the antiviral activity of BAF during vaccinia infection.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e100511. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Premature aging syndromes recapitulate many aspects of natural aging and provide an insight into this phenomenon at a molecular and cellular level. The progeria syndromes appear to cause rapid aging through disruption of normal nuclear structure. Recently, a coding mutation (c.34G¿>¿A [p.A12T]) in the Barrier to Autointegration Factor 1 (BANF1) gene was identified as the genetic basis of Néstor-Guillermo Progeria syndrome (NGPS). This mutation was described to cause instability in the BANF1 protein, causing a disruption of the nuclear envelope structure.ResultsHere we demonstrate that the BANF1 A12T protein is indeed correctly folded, stable and that the observed phenotype, is likely due to the disruption of the DNA binding surface of the A12T mutant. We demonstrate, using biochemical assays, that the BANF1 A12T protein is impaired in its ability to bind DNA while its interaction with nuclear envelope proteins is unperturbed. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that ectopic expression of the mutant protein induces the NGPS cellular phenotype, while the protein localizes normally to the nuclear envelope.Conclusions Our study clarifies the role of the A12T mutation in NGPS patients, which will be of importance for understanding the development of the disease.
    BMC Molecular Biology 12/2014; 15(1):27. · 2.06 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 30, 2014