Automated responsiveness test and bispectral index monitoring during propofol and propofol/N2O sedation
ABSTRACT Sedation practice, especially when non-anaesthesia personnel are involved, requires efficient anaesthetic depth monitoring. Therefore, we used prediction probability (PK) to evaluate the performance of the bispectral index (BIS) of the EEG and automated responsiveness test (ART) to predict sedation depth and loss of subject's responsiveness during propofol sedation, with and without N2O.
Twenty volunteers were studied during propofol administration with (N2O) and without (Air) N2O. The protocol consisted of sequential 15-min cycles. After a control period, propofol was infused to a target effect-site concentration of 0.25 microg/ml (N2O) or 1.5 microg/ml (Air), which was subsequently increased by 0.25 or 0.5 microg/ml, respectively, until loss of responsiveness was detected by loss of response to command [observer's assessment of alertness/sedation (OAA/S) score <or= 2].
Deeply sedated patients did not respond to ART indicating that the sensitivity was 1.0 with or without N2O. The specificity of ART was 0.24 with Air and 0.98 with N2O. The BIS was better than ART in predicting OAA/S score (PK = 0.84 vs. 0.77) and loss of responsiveness (PK = 0.87 vs. 0.69) during the Air trial. Nitrous oxide decreased the performance of BIS in predicting OAA/S score (PK = 0.76), but increased the performance of ART to predict loss of responsiveness (PK = 0.85).
BIS and ART comparably predict sedation and loss of responsiveness. However, ART, because of its resistance to false-normal responses, might prove to be more useful on an individual patient basis - especially in the presence of agents that impair BIS sensitivity.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the effect-site concentration (Ce) of propofol, required to achieving adequate sedation. To assess the efficacy and safety of a target-controlled infusion system during monitored anaesthesia care and to evaluate the ability of bispectral index (BIS) to predict sedation level. Study design. - Prospective clinical study. Women scheduled for insertion of tension-free vaginal tape under local anaesthetic infiltration. After premedication with hydroxyzine, 1% propofol was infused using the Diprifusor system at an initial target plasma concentration (Cc) of 1 microg/ml and then adjusted by steps of 0.2 microg/ml at 5 min intervals. The level of sedation was assessed using the observer's assessment of alertness/sedation (OAA/S) scale; the objective was to obtain an OAA/S level at 4 or 3 (response to verbal stimulation). Ce of propofol and BIS were noted every 5 min. Relation between Ce or BIS and OAA/S scale was analysed by linear regression and probability of prediction (P(K)). Fifty patients aged 62 +/- 12 years were studied. Sedation at level 4 or 3 was observed in all patients. Ce of propofol and BIS to maintain this OAA/S score were, respectively, 1.0 +/- 0.2 microg/ml and 87 +/- 7. There was a linear relation between OAA/S scale and BIS or Ce; however, individual values demonstrate wide variability. The average of P(K) values computed for each patient for the BIS and Ce was 0.84 and 0.83, respectively. Target-controlled infusion of propofol provides easy and safe management of intraoperative sedation, allowing a fast and precise adjustment of the propofol concentration to the clinical response of the patient.Annales Françaises d Anesthésie et de Réanimation 08/2004; 23(7):675-80. DOI:10.1016/j.annfar.2004.04.017 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using a push-button device, we investigated whether visual or auditory response time would increase with increasing sedation, and assessed the responsiveness score of the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) scale at the point of first loss of response to visual or auditory stimulation. In experiment 1 we applied visual and auditory stimulation to 19 patients as the propofol target plasma concentration (CPT) was increased to determine whether the visual or auditory response would be lost first. Thirty patients were each then infused with propofol, starting at a CPT of 0.3 microg ml(-1) and increasing by increments of 0.2 microg ml(-1), during which visual (experiment 2) or auditory (experiment 3) stimulation was applied when the effect-site concentration (CE) of propofol reached CPT. Visual response time (VRT), auditory response time (ART), CE and total amounts of propofol, and OAA/S score at the first loss of visual/auditory response were measured. Visual response disappeared earlier than auditory response in 84.2% of the patients. Visual response time and ART were linearly prolonged as the CE of propofol increased. The CE and total amounts of propofol at the first loss of visual response were 1.2 +/- 0.4 microg ml(-1) and 57.9 +/- 16.7 mg, compared with 1.4 +/- 0.5 microg ml(-1) and 71.6 +/- 26.1 mg, respectively, at the first loss of auditory response. The median (range) OAA/S scores at the first loss of visual and auditory response were 4 (3-4) and 3 (2-4), respectively. VRT and ART were linearly prolonged with increasing sedation. Visual response may be useful in monitoring conscious sedation.Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 10/2004; 48(8):1033-7. DOI:10.1111/j.0001-5172.2004.00469.x · 2.31 Impact Factor