Duplication of primate and rodent B7-H3 immunoglobulin V- and C-like domains: divergent history of functional redundancy and exon loss.
ABSTRACT B7-H3 is a novel protein structurally related to the B7 family of ligands by the presence of a single set of immunoglobulin-V-like and immunoglobulin-C-like (VC) domains. By multiplex PCR, the dominantly expressed form of human B7-H3 was found to be a splice variant containing tandemly duplicated VC domains (VCVC). In contrast, mouse B7-H3 cDNA contained only one single VC form due to an exon structure corresponding to V-(pseudoexon C)-(pseudoexon V)-C. Comparisons of human, monkey, mouse, and hamster genomic B7-H3 reveal that primates, but not rodents, exhibited a higher degree of intramolecular sequence similarity between VC duplications than between molecules. Both VC and VCVC forms of human B7-H3 inhibited CD4(+) T cell proliferation and downregulated cytokine production upon TCR activation. These results suggest independent, but convergent, paths of B7-H3 active domain duplication followed by divergent histories of exon degeneration in rodents and exon maintenance by humans.
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ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical subsets of leukocytes providing antigen presentation for initiation of humoral and cellular immune responses. Their role as effector cells in tumor resistance, however, is less known. We report here that human DCs generated by culturing plastic-adherent peripheral blood monocytes in the presence of granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 have potent growth-inhibition activity in vitro on a wide spectrum of human tumor lines of different tissue origin. Proinflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha and CD40 signaling, can further enhance DC-mediated inhibition of tumor growth. The growth inhibition requires contact between DCs and tumor cells while LPS treatment enhances the antitumor activity in DC culture supernatants. Our results suggest that in addition to their predominant role as regulatory cells, activated DCs are also potential effector cells in tumor immunity.Blood 05/2000; 95(7):2346-51. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The anatomical and numerical simplicity of the fish olfactory system has led us to examine the family of olfactory receptors expressed in the catfish. We have identified a family of genes encoding seven transmembrane domain receptors that share considerable homology with the odorant receptors of the rat. The size of the catfish receptor repertoire appears to be far smaller than in mammals. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences suggests that these receptor genes have undergone positive Darwinian selection to generate enhanced diversity within the putative odorant-binding domains. Individual receptor clones anneal with 0.5%-2% of the olfactory neurons, suggesting that a single cell expresses only a small subset of distinct odorant receptors. Each cell, therefore, possesses a unique identity defined by the receptors it expresses. These data suggest that the brain may discriminate among odors by determining which neurons have been activated.Cell 04/1993; 72(5):657-66. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The two sets of inhibitory and activating natural killer (NK) receptor genes belong either to the Ig or to the C-type lectin superfamilies. Both are extensive and diverse, comprising genes of varying degrees of relatedness, indicative of a process of iterative duplication. We have constructed gene maps to help understand how and when NK receptor genes developed and the nature of their polymorphism. A cluster of over 15 C-type lectin genes, the natural killer complex is located on human chromosome 12p13.1, syntenic with a region in mouse that borders multiple Ly49 loci. The equivalent locus in man is occupied by a single pseudogene, LY49L. The immunoglobulin superfamily of loci, the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC), on chromosome 19q13.4, contains many polymorphic killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes as well as multiple related sequences. These include immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT) (or leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor genes), leukocyte-associated inhibitory receptor genes (LAIR), NKp46, Fc alphaR and the platelet glycoprotein receptor VI locus, which encodes a collagen-binding molecule. KIRs are expressed mostly on NK cells and some T cells. The other LRC loci are more widely expressed. Further centromeric of the LRC are sets of additional loci with weak sequence similarity to the KIRs, including the extensive CD66(CEA) and Siglec families. The LRC-syntenic region in mice contains no orthologues of KIRs. Some of the KIR genes are highly polymorphic in terms of sequence as well as for presence/absence of genes on different haplotypes. Some anchor loci, such as KIR2DL4, are present on most haplotypes. A few ILT loci, such as ILT5 and ILT8, are polymorphic, but only ILT6 exhibits presence/absence variation. This knowledge of the genomic organisation of the extensive NK superfamilies underpins efforts to understand the functions of the encoded NK receptor molecules. It leads to the conclusion that the functional homology of human KIR and mouse Ly49 genes arose by convergent evolution. NK receptor immunogenetics has interesting parallels with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in which some of the polymorphic genes are ligands for NK molecules. There are hints of an ancient genetic relationship between NK receptor genes and MHC-paralogous regions on chromosomes 1, 9 and 19. The picture that emerges from both complexes is of eternal evolutionary restlessness, presumably in response to resistance to disease.Immunological Reviews 07/2001; 181:20-38. · 12.16 Impact Factor