Alternative splicing disrupts a nuclear localization signal in spleen tyrosine kinase that is required for invasion suppression in breast cancer.
ABSTRACT Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a candidate tumor (metastasis) suppressor that is highly expressed in mammary epithelial cells. Loss of Syk expression through promoter hypermethylation is associated with increased invasiveness in a subset of breast cancer. Here, we show that in addition to full-length Syk [Syk(L)], an alternatively spliced variant, Syk(S), is frequently expressed in breast cancer cells. Syk(S) is identical to Syk(L), except that it lacks 23 amino acid residues (deletion) within the interdomain B (IDB) of Syk. We also show that the aberrant expression of Syk(S) occurs frequently in primary breast tumors but never in matched normal mammary tissues, suggesting a contribution of Syk(S) to mammary tumor progression. Expression of Syk(L) suppressed breast cancer cell invasiveness. In contrast, Syk(S) expression did not affect the cell invasion potential. This differential phenotypic response is accompanied by their different subcellular localization. Immunocytochemical studies and nuclear and cytoplasmic fractionation experiments indicated that Syk(L) could enter the nucleus, whereas Syk(S) was located exclusively in the cytoplasm. Five basic residues in deletion were found to be critical in determining Syk(L) nuclear transport and invasion suppression activity; mutations completely excluded Syk(L) from the nucleus and blocked Syk(L)-inducible invasion suppression. Moreover, IDB acted as an autonomous nuclear localization signal to facilitate nuclear transport of a heterologous protein. Thus, the IDB of Syk(L) contains a nuclear localization signal that is responsible for Syk(L) nuclear translocation. The correlation of the nuclear localization and invasion suppression function of Syk(L) indicated that nuclear Syk possesses biological activities associated with tumor suppression in mammary epithelial cells.
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ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor protein p53 is a transcription factor that is mutated in many cancers. Regulation of gene expression by binding of wild-type p53 to its target sites is accompanied by changes in epigenetic marks like histone acetylation. We studied DNA binding and epigenetic changes induced by wild-type and mutant p53 in non-malignant hTERT-immortalized human mammary epithelial cells overexpressing either wild-type p53 or one of four p53 mutants (R175H, R249S, R273H and R280K) on a wild-type p53 background. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to a 13,000 human promoter microarray, we found that wild-type p53 bound 197 promoters on the microarray including known and novel p53 targets. Of these p53 targets only 20% showed a concomitant increase in histone acetylation, which was linked to increased gene expression, while 80% of targets showed no changes in histone acetylation. We did not observe any decreases in histone acetylation in genes directly bound by wild-type p53. DNA binding in samples expressing mutant p53 was reduced over 95% relative to wild-type p53 and very few changes in histone acetylation and no changes in DNA methylation were observed in mutant p53 expressing samples. We conclude that wild-type p53 induces transcription of target genes by binding to DNA and differential induction of histone acetylation at target promoters. Several new wild-type p53 target genes, including DGKZ, FBXO22 and GDF9, were found. DNA binding of wild-type p53 is highly compromised if mutant p53 is present due to interaction of both p53 forms resulting in no direct effect on epigenetic marks.BMC Genomics 11/2008; 9:486. · 4.07 Impact Factor
Article: Predicting functional alternative splicing by measuring RNA selection pressure from multigenome alignments.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: High-throughput methods such as EST sequencing, microarrays and deep sequencing have identified large numbers of alternative splicing (AS) events, but studies have shown that only a subset of these may be functional. Here we report a sensitive bioinformatics approach that identifies exons with evidence of a strong RNA selection pressure ratio (RSPR)--i.e., evolutionary selection against mutations that change only the mRNA sequence while leaving the protein sequence unchanged--measured across an entire evolutionary family, which greatly amplifies its predictive power. Using the UCSC 28 vertebrate genome alignment, this approach correctly predicted half to three-quarters of AS exons that are known binding targets of the NOVA splicing regulatory factor, and predicted 345 strongly selected alternative splicing events in human, and 262 in mouse. These predictions were strongly validated by several experimental criteria of functional AS such as independent detection of the same AS event in other species, reading frame-preservation, and experimental evidence of tissue-specific regulation: 75% (15/20) of a sample of high-RSPR exons displayed tissue specific regulation in a panel of ten tissues, vs. only 20% (4/20) among a sample of low-RSPR exons. These data suggest that RSPR can identify exons with functionally important splicing regulation, and provides biologists with a dataset of over 600 such exons. We present several case studies, including both well-studied examples (GRIN1) and novel examples (EXOC7). These data also show that RSPR strongly outperforms other approaches such as standard sequence conservation (which fails to distinguish amino acid selection pressure from RNA selection pressure), or pairwise genome comparison (which lacks adequate statistical power for predicting individual exons).PLoS Computational Biology 12/2009; 5(12):e1000608. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is well established that transcription and alternative splicing events are functionally coupled during gene expression. Here, we report that protein arginine N-methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) may play a key role in this coupling process by functioning as a transcriptional coactivator that can also regulate alternative splicing. PRMT6 coactivates the progesterone, glucocorticoid and oestrogen receptors in luciferase reporter assays in a hormone-dependent manner. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotide duplex knockdown of PRMT6 disrupts oestrogen-stimulated transcription of endogenous GREB1 and progesterone receptor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, demonstrating the importance of PRMT6 in hormone-dependent transcription. In contrast, the regulation of alternative splicing by PRMT6 is hormone independent. siRNA knockdown of PRMT6 increases the exon inclusion:skipping ratio of alternatively spliced exons in endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor and spleen tyrosine kinase RNA transcripts in both the presence and absence of oestrogen. These results demonstrate that PRMT6 has a dual role in regulating gene expression and that these two functions can occur independently of each other.Nucleic Acids Research 04/2010; 38(7):2201-16. · 8.03 Impact Factor