Severe maternal morbidity associated with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in the United States.
ABSTRACT This study was to report the incidence of severe maternal morbidity associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in the United States.
We used data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey, a nationally representative sample of discharge records, from 1988 to 1997. The database consisted of approximately 300,000 deliveries, which represented 39 million births during the 10-year period.
The overall incidence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy was 5.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.2 to 6.5%]. Eclampsia was reported at 1.0 per 1,000 deliveries (95% CI: 0.8 to 1.2). The incidence of eclampsia, severe preeclampsia, and superimposed preeclampsia remained unchanged during the 10-year period. Women with preeclampsia and eclampsia had a 3- to 25-fold increased risk of severe complications, such as abruptio placentae, thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, pulmonary edema, and aspiration pneumonia. More than half of women with preeclampsia and eclampsia had cesarean delivery. African American women not only had higher incidence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy but also tended to have a greater risk for most severe complications. Preeclamptic and eclamptic women younger than 20 years or older than 35 years had substantially higher morbidity.
Preeclampsia and eclampsia carry a high risk for severe maternal morbidity. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans have higher incidence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and suffer from more severe complications.
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ABSTRACT: Angiogenic markers are now being incorporated into clinical practice for the screening, diagnosing, and monitoring of preeclampsia. Pregnancy requires both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in the fetal compartment and angiogenesis in the maternal compartment. Abnormal angiogenesis in the placenta determines impaired remodeling of the maternal spiral arteries and placental underperfusion that may ultimately lead to fetal growth restriction and maternal preeclampsia. The dysregulation of angiogenesis in the placenta and maternal-fetal circulation has emerged as one of the main pathophysiological features in the development of placental insufficiency and its clinical consequences. Abnormal angiogenesis has also been related to other obstetric and fetal conditions such as peripartum cardiomyopathy and fetal cardiac defects. This opens up new challenges for our understanding of angiogenic involvement in maternal cardiovascular function and fetal cardiac development, and it offers new clinical opportunities. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the pathophysiological implications and the clinical role of angiogenic factors in pregnancy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy 02/2015; 37(2). DOI:10.1159/000368605 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pregnancy in women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases is associated with several maternal and fetal complications. The development of clinical practice guidelines with the best available scientific evidence may help standardize the care of these patients. To provide recommendations regarding prenatal care, treatment, and a more effective monitoring of pregnancy in women with lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Nominal panels were formed for consensus, systematic search of information, development of clinical questions, processing and staging of recommendations, internal validation by peers and external validation of the final document. The quality criteria of the AGREE II instrument were followed. The panels answered 37 questions related to maternal and fetal care in lupus erythematosus, RA and APS, as well as for use of antirheumatic drugs during pregnancy and lactation. The recommendations were discussed and integrated into a final manuscript. Finally, the corresponding algorithms were developed. In this second part, the recommendations for pregnant women with RA, APS and the use of antirheumatic drugs during pregnancy and lactation are presented. We believe that the Mexican clinical practice guidelines for the management of pregnancy in women with RA and APS integrate the best available evidence for the treatment and follow-up of patients with these conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.reuma.2014.12.004