Tyrosine kinases are commonly mutated and activated in both acute and chronic myeloid leukemias. Here, we review the functions, signaling activities, mechanism of transformation, and therapeutic targeting of two prototypic tyrosine kinase oncogenes, BCR-ABL and FLT3, associated with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), respectively. BCR-ABL is generated by the Philadelphia chromosome translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, creating a chimeric oncogene in which the BCR and c-ABL genes are fused. The product of this oncogene, BCR-ABL, has elevated ABL tyrosine kinase activity and transforms hematopoietic cells by exerting a wide variety of biological effects, including reduction in growth factor dependence, enhanced viability, and altered adhesion of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) cells. Elevated tyrosine kinase activity of BCR-ABL is critical for activating downstream signalling cascades and for all aspects of transformation, explaining the remarkable clinical efficacy of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib mesylate (STI571). By comparison, FLT3 is mutated in about one third of all cases of AML, most often through a mechanism that involves an internal tandem duplication (ITD) of a small number of amino acid residues in the juxtamembrane domain of the receptor. As is the case for BCR-ABL, these mutations activate the kinase activity constitutively, activate multiple signaling pathways, and result in an augmentation of proliferation and viability. Transformation by FLT3-ITD can readily be observed in murine models, and FLT3 cooperates with other types of oncogenes to create a fully transformed acute leukemia. FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently being evaluated in clinical trials and may be very useful therapeutic agents in AML.
"Reciprocal translocation of the chromosomal region carrying the proto-oncogene c-abl localized on chromosome 9 to the breakpoint cluster region (BCR) on chromosome 22 has been identified as the crucial step in malignant cell formation.1 The resulting BCR-ABL fusion gene encodes a constitutively active tyrosine kinase which significantly influences cellular signal transduction.2 Numerous preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that the BCR-ABL oncoprotein is the major cause of the disease, and suggest that most CML cells are oncogene-addicted to the activated kinase. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bosutinib (SKI-606) is an orally available, once-daily, dual Src and Abl kinase inhibitor with promising clinical potential in first-, second-, and third-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Bosutinib effectively inhibits wild-type BCR-ABL and most imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL mutations except for V299L and T315I. Low hematologic toxicity is a remarkable characteristic of this novel second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and this has been ascribed to its minimal activity against the platelet-derived growth factor receptor and KIT. Low-grade, typically self-limiting diarrhea, which usually appears within the first few weeks after treatment initiation, represents the predominant toxicity of bosutinib. Other treatment-associated adverse events are mostly mild to moderate. Bosutinib has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic, accelerated, or blast phase Philadelphia chromosome-positive CML in adult patients with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy. This review summarizes the main properties of bosutinib and the currently available data on its clinical potential in the treatment of CML.
OncoTargets and Therapy 03/2013; 6:99-106. DOI:10.2147/OTT.S19901 · 2.31 Impact Factor
"BCR-ABL translocation is common in 95% of patients and Ph chromosome is found in all dividing multipotent stem cells (5). BCR-ABL fusion gene formed as a result of this translocation encodes a protein which has tyrosine kinase and oncogenic activity (6). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imatinib (Gleevec) is the effective therapy for BCR-ABL positive CML patients. Point mutations have been detected in ATP-binding domain of ABL gene which disturbs the binding of Gleevec to this target leading to resistance. Detection of mutations is helpful in clinical management of imatinib resistance. We established a very sensitive (ASO) PCR to detect mutations in an imatinib-resistant CML patient. Mutations C944T and T1052C were detected which cause complete partial imatinib resistance, respectively. This is the first report of multiple point mutations conferring primary imatinib resistance in same patient at the same time. Understanding the biological reasons of primary imatinib resistance is one of the emerging issues of pharmacogenomics and will be helpful in understanding primary resistance of molecularly-targeted cancer therapies. It will also be of great utilization in clinical management of imatinib resistance. Moreover, this ASO-PCR assay is very effective in detecting mutations related to imatinib resistance.
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