Enteral nutrition during acute pancreatitis: feasibility study of a self-propeeling spiral distal end jejunal tube.
ABSTRACT The aim of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of enteral jejunal nutrition for acute pancreatitis using a self-propelling spiral distal end jejunal tube.
Sixteen consecutive patients with acute pancreatitis in whom Flocare tubes were placed for enteral nutrition were included in this open prospective study. All of them had pancreatic and/or peripancreatic necrosis (Balthazar >=D). The median computed topography index was 5 (range 3-10) and the median Ranson score was 2 (range 0-5). The nasoenteric Flocare tube (spiral distal end) was inserted in the stomach at the bedside. Self progression into the jejunum was assessed by X-ray at 1, 7 and 12 hours and then every 24 hours for 4 days. The rate of successful tube self-placement in the jejunum and the time to successful placement were noted.
Insertion was successful in 12 of 16 patients (75%). Treitz's ligament was reached in a median of 12 hours (range 1-96 hours). For the remaining patients, the tube was successfully repositioned under fluoroscopic guidance in 2 and withdrawn in 2, one for oral renutrition and one to change to a weighted jejunal tube. No tube dysfunction or recurrence of pancreatitis occurred during the entire period of enteral nutrition.
This study suggests that the nasoenteric Flocare tube can be used effectively and safely in early enteral jejunal nutrition for severe acute pancreatitis, without endoscopic or radiological manipulation.
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ABSTRACT: Outcome in severe and critical illnesses is strongly related to premorbid conditions: the strength of the mucosal barriers, the innate immune system, and the built-in resistance to disease. Early risk factors and determinants of poor outcome are factors such advanced age; impaired premorbid health status, especially diabetes and high body mass index (obesity); and immunosuppressive treatments. Combined supplementation of bioactive fibers and lactic acid bacteria (synbiotics) directly and indirectly influences several of these factors. Determinants for poor outcome are degree of oxidative stress, neutrophil activation, and infiltration of tissues, especially in the lungs. Attempts at early reduction of the exaggerated inflammatory storm and limitation of further impairment of the immune function are always given the highest priority. The supply of live lactic acid bacteria and plant fibers can dramatically reduce the hyperinflammation and also the infiltration by neutrophils of organs such as the lungs. New and efficient autopositioning and regurgitation-resistant feeding tubes provide instruments for the early supply of enteral nutrition with immune-boosting antioxidants and synbiotics. A meticulous choice of probiotic lactic acid bacteria is recommended because only a small minority of the lactic acid bacteria survive the harsh environment of the upper gastrointestinal tract, ferment strong semiresistant fibers such as inulin, and have the ability to control inflammation and eliminate unwanted pathogens, such as antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and Clostridium difficile.Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 12/2005; 21(6):712-6. · 4.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that two factors significantly influence outcome in a surgical emergency - premorbid health and the degree of inflammation during the first 24 h following trauma. Repeat observations suggest that the depth of post-trauma immunoparalysis reflects the height of early inflammatory response. Administration to surgical emergencies, as was routine in the past, of larger amounts of fluid and electrolytes, fat, sugar and nutrients seems counterproductive as it increases immune dysfunction, impairs resistance to disease and, in fact, increases morbidity. Instead, strong efforts should be made to limit the obvious superinflammation, which occurs during the first 24 h after trauma and, thereby, reduce the subsequent immunoparalysis. Several approaches show efficacy in limiting early superinflammation such as strict control of blood glucose, avoidance of stored blood when possible, supply of antioxidants, live lactic acid bacteria and plant fibres. This review focuses mainly on use of live lactic acid bacteria and plant fibres, often called synbiotics. Encouraging experience is reported from clinical trials in liver transplantation, severe pancreatitis and extensive trauma. Immediate control of inflammation by enteral nutrition and supply of antioxidants, lactic acid bacteria and fibres is facilitated by feeding tubes, introduced as early as possible on arrival at the hospital.Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England 12/2006; 88(7):624-9. · 1.33 Impact Factor