Sucrose attenuates a negative electroencephalographic response to an aversive stimulus for newborns.
ABSTRACT Reports that sweet taste calms crying in newborns and is analgesic against the pain caused by a heel lance served as the basis for this study. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, heart rate activity, and infants' facial behaviors were recorded before and after a noninvasive, but noxious, heelstroke (procedure from the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale). In a randomized and controlled trial, 34 newborns were administered 2 mL of water or sucrose solution before the heelstroke. Frontal EEG asymmetry scores were computed, and power in the 3 to 6 Hz frequency band was analyzed. Infants who received water showed increased relative right frontal EEG activation from baseline to the post-heelstroke phase, a pattern that typifies negative affect. The EEG of infants in the sucrose group did not change. Heart rate increased rapidly in both groups during the heelstroke phase. However, after the heelstroke, the heart rate of infants who received sucrose returned to baseline, whereas the heart rate of infants who tasted water remained elevated. During the heelstroke, the infants in the water group cried and grimaced twice as long as the infants in the sucrose group. These findings add to the growing literature showing that sucrose attenuates newborns' negative response to aversive or noxious stimuli.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to characterize changes in EEG-related measures after noxious stimuli in neonates and to assess their potential utility as measures of pain and/or discomfort during neonatal intensive care. Seventy-two healthy term infants were investigated: Twenty-eight had a non-skin-breaking pin-prick on the heel, randomized to receive either oral glucose (n = 16) or water (n = 12) before the stimulus. Twenty-one infants were studied during a venous blood sample from the dorsum of the hand, 23 infants during a capillary heel stick. Behavioral pain responses were assessed with the Premature Infant Pain Profile Scale. The stimulus evoked a significant increase in higher frequency components (10-30 Hz) which also correlated to behavioral measures. The frontotemporal localization of the increased activity with frequency bands similar to electromuscular artifacts and the relation to behavioral measures confirmed that this activity corresponds to an increase in muscle tone. There was no change in frontal EEG asymmetry in any of the groups. The present results indicate that responses in cortical activity recorded by EEG are not useful for clinical assessment of infants' responses to noxious stimuli.Pediatric Research 07/2008; 64(4):429-34. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although over 40 methods of pain assessment in infants are available for use in clinical practice, unrecognized and under-treated pain remains one of the most commonly reported problems within the Neonatal Intensive Care Units. A number of factors have been found to account for differences in the robustness of the pain response in neonates of varying gestational ages. Discrepancies between behavioral and physiological pain indicators have also been reported. With newer technologies, there is an opportunity not only to verify infant pain perception, but these tools may allow an identification of which of the observed indicators are most sensitive in particular clinical situations. The current controversies regarding pain assessment in preterm and term infants are reviewed to define the most important issues and to develop a dialogue for future directions.Seminars in Perinatology 11/2007; 31(5):283-8. · 2.99 Impact Factor