[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional cytotoxic therapy of hematologic malignancies is often associated with significant morbidity. This morbidity is often due to the lack of specificity for hematopoietic cells. Therefore, the concept of targeted therapy for patients with hematologic malignancies has received attention for many years. The goal of monoclonal antibody therapy is to target specific cell surface antigens on malignant hematopoietic cells, while sparing normal cells and tissues. Currently, monoclonal antibodies are being evaluated for their cytotoxic effects as well as their ability to deliver toxic agents or radiation. Rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 antibody, has shown response rates of approximately 50% with minimal toxicity in patients with refractory indolent lymphoma. Campath-1H (anti-CD52) has shown encouraging results in patients previously treated for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, with response rates up to 33%, although with significant toxicity. Anti-CD33 antibodies are being used to deliver cytotoxic agents, such as calicheamicin to patients with acute myeloid leukemia with response rates up to 30%. In addition, anti-CD33 and anti-CD45 antibodies have been used to deliver radiation directly to leukemic cells. 131I-labeled anti-CD45 antibodies are being studied in combination with conventional preparative regimens in patients receiving bone marrow transplantation. Lastly, the therapeutic agent STI571 (signal transduction inhibitor 571) has demonstrated the capability of targeting specific molecular abnormalities seen in hematologic malignancies. STI571 targets the tyrosine kinase activity of the bcr-abl fusion protein seen in chronic myeloid leukemia. STI571 has induced complete hematologic responses in up to 98% of patients evaluated in clinical trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have investigated whether the quantitative flow cytometry is an useful tool to better characterize B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (CLDs). Peripheral blood samples from 104 patients with leukemic B-cell disorders and 20 healthy donors were analyzed. Directly phycoerythrin-conjugated CD19, CD20, CD22, CD23, CD79b, and CD5 monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) and QuantiBRITE pre-calibrated beads were used to calculate the number of antigen molecules per cell, expressed as antibody binding capacity (ABC). As compared to normal controls, in chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL) all MoAbs tested, with the exception of CD23 and CD5, showed lower ABC levels. In prolymphocytic leukemias (PL), CD5 and CD23 antigens were constantly absent while lower CD19 and CD22 ABC levels were observed. Hairy cell leukemias (HCL) displayed very high levels of CD20 and CD22. Of interest, splenic lymphomas with villous lymphocytes (SLVL) could be discriminated from HCL for higher CD79b and lower CD19 ABC values. Finally, higher CD20 levels were detected in follicular lymphomas (FL), whereas higher CD79b and CD5 levels characterized mantle cell lymphomas (MCL). Seven out of 61 CLL cases were defined as morphologically atypical. When compared with typical forms, lower levels of CD19 and CD23 and higher CD20 and CD22 ABC values were detected. However, we failed to demonstrate quantitative differences between atypical CLL and MCL. Our results suggest that quantitative flow cytometry may be a useful additional tool to better identify some types of B-cell CLDs.
American Journal of Hematology 09/2000; 64(4):275-81. DOI:10.1002/1096-8652(200008)64:43.3.CO;2-P · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CD52 antigen is expressed on most normal and neoplastic lymphoid cells. The reshaped humanized IgG1 anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody (Campath-1H) has been used in the treatment of hemopoietic and non-hemopoietic diseases for its ability to induce lymphocyte depletion both in vitro and in vivo. Good activity has been shown in patients with chronic T and B cell leukemias, in particular T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL). However, the response to treatment is not uniform and this variability may depend on differences in the level of antigen expression on the leukemic cells. To test this hypothesis, we used quantitative flow cytometry to investigate the intensity of the expression of CD52 in 45 cases of lymphoid leukemia, 24 with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 21 with T-PLL and 12 normal controls. Normal T lymphocytes expressed higher CD52 antigen than B lymphocytes (p < 0.005) and the antigen was also significantly higher in T-PLL compared to CLL (p < 0.001). Moreover, the differences in CD52 expression were somewhat higher in Campath-1H treated patients who responded than in non responders. Although other factors may play a role in the response to Campath-1H in vivo, the quantitative estimation of CD52 expression may provide a rationale for the greater response in T-PLL and help select those patients with a higher probability of responding to this therapy.
Leukemia Research 02/1998; 22(2):185-91. DOI:10.1016/S0145-2126(97)00158-6 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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