The thigh as a model for free style free flaps.
ABSTRACT Following a set of principles, free style free flaps may be harvested from any region of the body where a Doppler signal is heard. By using a retrograde dissection technique, the skin vessel is traced through its subfascial course (intramuscular or septocutaneous), until adequate length or vessel size is achieved. If a "free style free flap" is not originally planned, this approach can be usedwhen anatomic variations or unexpected events are encountered. The thigh, a region that is familiar to the surgical team at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, was chosen as the site to begin exploring this style of flap harvest. Nine flaps were harvested as free style free flaps from the thigh and were used successfully for the reconstruction of complex defects.
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ABSTRACT: Simple or complex defects in the lower leg, and especially in its distal third, continue to be a challenging task for reconstructive surgeons. A variety of flaps were used in the attempt to achieve excellence in form and function. After a long evolution of the reconstructive methods, including random pattern flaps, axial pattern flaps, musculocutaneous flaps and fasciocutaneous flaps, the reappraisal of the works of Manchot and Salmon by Taylor and Palmer opened the era of perforator flaps. This era began in 1989, when Koshima and Soeda, and separately Kroll and Rosenfield described the first applications of such flaps. Perforator flaps, whether free or pedicled, gained a high popularity due to their main advantages: decreasing donor-site morbidity and improving aesthetic outcome. The use as local perforator flaps in lower leg was possible due to a better understanding of the cutaneous circulation, leg vascular anatomy, angiosome and perforasome concepts, as well as innovations in flaps design. This review will describe the evolution, anatomy, flap design, and technique of the main distally pedicled propeller perforator flaps used in the reconstruction of defects in the distal third of the lower leg and foot.Archives of plastic surgery. 03/2012; 39(2):94-105.
Article: Long-term results after muscle-rib flap transfer for reconstruction of composite limb defects.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The authors present the long-term results in a series of 44 cases with post-traumatic bone defects solved with muscle-rib flaps, between March 1997 and December 2007. In these cases, we performed 21 serratus anterior-rib flaps (SA-R), 10 latissimus dorsi-rib flaps (LD-R), and 13 LD-SA-R. The flaps were used in upper limb in 18 cases and in lower limb in 26 cases. With an overall immediate success rate of 95.4% (42 of 44 cases) and a primary bone union rate of 97.7% (43 of 44 cases), and despite the few partisans of this method, we consider that this procedure still remains very usefully for small and medium bone defects accompanied by large soft tissue defects.Microsurgery 03/2011; 31(3):218-22. · 1.61 Impact Factor
Article: Preoperative imaging for perforator flaps in reconstructive surgery: a systematic review of the evidence for current techniques.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although preoperative imaging of perforator vasculature in planning microvascular reconstruction is commonplace, there has not been any clear demonstration of the evidence for this practice, or data comparing the many available modalities in an evidence-based approach. This article aims to provide an objective, evidence-based review of the literature on this subject. The evidence supporting the use of various modalities of imaging was investigated by performing focused searches of the PubMed and Medline databases. The articles were ranked according to the criteria set out in March 2009 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine definitions. Endpoints comprised objective outcome data supporting the use of imaging, including flap loss, unplanned returns to theater, operative time reduction, and surgeon-reported stress. The objective high level of evidence for any form of preoperative perforator imaging is low with only small number of comparative studies or case series investigating computed tomographic angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance angiography, handheld Doppler, color duplex, and classic angiography. Of all modalities, there is a growing body of level 2b evidence supporting the use of CTA. While further multicenter trials testing hard outcomes are needed to conclusively validate preoperative imaging in reconstructive surgery, sufficient evidence exists to demonstrate that preoperative imaging can statistically improve outcomes, and that CTA is the current gold standard for perforator mapping.Annals of plastic surgery 05/2012; 69(1):3-9. · 1.29 Impact Factor