Effect of clozapine on serum leptin, insulin levels, and body weight and composition in patients with schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Weight gain frequently occurs during treatment with clozapine. However, the pathophysiology of clozapine-induced weight gain remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of clozapine on hormones leptin and insulin in relation to body weight and composition measures to determine their contribution to clozapine-induced weight gain.
Data are reported on 19 patients with schizophrenia (11 women and 8 men) who completed 10 weeks of treatment with clozapine. Insulin levels, weight measurements, body mass index (BMI), and body composition measurements were evaluated at baseline and at the end of treatment. Leptin levels were assessed at baseline and after 4 and 10 weeks of treatment. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to evaluate changes in weight, body composition measures, leptin, and insulin. The Pearson correlations were used to assess the relationships between changes in hormone levels and weight along with body composition measurements. The correlations of change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) score with changes in hormone levels, weight gain and body composition measures were evaluated with Pearson correlations.
Leptin and insulin levels did not show any significant alterations across time. The use of clozapine was associated with significant increases in BMI (F=19.8, P<.001), lean muscle mass (F=8.2, P=.01), and fat mass (F=15.4, P=.001), while total body fluid percentage (F=4.1, P=.05) significantly decreased. Improvement in PANSS scores was not correlated to change in leptin, insulin, weight, BMI, or body composition measurements. The change in leptin levels was correlated to change in body fat mass.
The role of leptin in weight gain induced by clozapine might be a regulatory mechanism rather than being etiologic.