Genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumor progression in a dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma.
ABSTRACT In this case of a dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma, we searched for genetic or epigenetic alterations in both components of the tumor, the low grade chondroblastic component, and the high grade osteosacomatouscomponent. To date, only little is known about aberrant patterns of DNA methylation in chondrosarcomas. Microdissection was used as a valuable method for clearly separating the tissues. We examined CpG island methylation of 8 tumor suppressor genes and candidate tumor suppressor genes, which are involved in different pathways: cell cycle (p21WAF1, p16INK4, p14ARF), apoptosis (DAPK, FHIT), DNA repair (hMLH1), and cell adherence (E-Cadherin). We found p16INK4 and E-cadherin promotor methylation in the low grade chondroid compartment of the dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. P16INK4, FHIT, and E-cadherin were methylated in the highly malignant osteosarcomatous compartment of the tumor. Earlier investigations of this chondrosarcoma showed p53 mutation and p53-LOH in the anaplastic component. As shown in this case, it was accompanied by Rb-LOH. Early methylation of p16IK4 and E-cadherin in the chondroid compartment could point to the monoclonal origin of demonstrated dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. Further alterations, as shown in p53, Rb and FHIT, are responsible for the "switch" to a high grade anaplastic sarcoma.
Article: Three new chondrosarcoma cell lines: one grade III conventional central chondrosarcoma and two dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas of bone.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary sarcoma of bone. High-grade conventional chondrosarcoma and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma have a poor outcome. In pre-clinical research aiming at the identification of novel treatment targets, the need for representative cell lines and model systems is high, but availability is scarce. METHODS: We developed and characterized three cell lines, derived from conventional grade III chondrosarcoma (L835), and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (L2975 and L3252) of bone. Proliferation and migration were studied and we used COBRA-FISH and array-CGH for karyotyping and genotyping. Immunohistochemistry for p16 and p53 was performed as well as TP53 and IDH mutation analysis. Cells were injected into nude mice to establish their tumorigenic potential. RESULTS: We show that the three cell lines have distinct migrative properties, L2975 had the highest migration rate and showed tumorigenic potential in mice. All cell lines showed chromosomal rearrangements with complex karyotypes and genotypic aberrations were conserved throughout late passaging of the cell lines. All cell lines showed loss of CDKN2A, while TP53 was wild type for exons 5-8. L835 has an IDH1 R132C mutation, L2975 an IDH2 R172W mutation and L3252 is IDH wild type. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the stable culturing properties of these cell lines and their genotypic profile resembling the original tumors, these cell lines should provide useful functional models to further characterize chondrosarcoma and to evaluate new treatment strategies.BMC Cancer 08/2012; 12(1):375. · 3.01 Impact Factor
Article: Global demethylation of rat chondrosarcoma cells after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine results in increased tumorigenicity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abnormal patterns of DNA methylation are observed in several types of human cancer. While localized DNA methylation of CpG islands has been associated with gene silencing, the effect that genome-wide loss of methylation has on tumorigenesis is not completely known. To examine its effect on tumorigenesis, we induced DNA demethylation in a rat model of human chondrosarcoma using 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Rat specific pyrosequencing assays were utilized to assess the methylation levels in both LINEs and satellite DNA sequences following 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Loss of DNA methylation was accompanied by an increase in invasiveness of the rat chondrosarcoma cells, in vitro, as well as by an increase in tumor growth in vivo. Subsequent microarray analysis provided insight into the gene expression changes that result from 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine induced DNA demethylation. In particular, two genes that may function in tumorigenesis, sox-2 and midkine, were expressed at low levels in control cells but upon 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment these genes became overexpressed. Promoter region DNA analysis revealed that these genes were methylated in control cells but became demethylated following 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Following withdrawal of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, the rat chondrosarcoma cells reestablished global DNA methylation levels that were comparable to that of control cells. Concurrently, invasiveness of the rat chondrosarcoma cells, in vitro, decreased to a level indistinguishable to that of control cells. Taken together these experiments demonstrate that global DNA hypomethylation induced by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine may promote specific aspects of tumorigenesis in rat chondrosarcoma cells.PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(12):e8340. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Human Chondrosarcoma Cells Acquire an Epithelial-Like Gene Expression Pattern via an Epigenetic Switch: Evidence for Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition during Sarcomagenesis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chondrocytes are mesenchymally derived cells that reportedly acquire some epithelial characteristics; however, whether this is a progression through a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) during chondrosarcoma development is still a matter of investigation. We observed that chondrosarcoma cells acquired the expression of four epithelial markers, E-cadherin,desmocollin 3, maspin, and 14-3-3σ, all of which are governed epigenetically through cytosine methylation. Indeed, loss of cytosine methylation was tightly associated with acquired expression of both maspin and 14-3-3σ in chondrosarcomas. In contrast, chondrocyte cells were negative for maspin and 14-3-3σ and displayed nearly complete DNA methylation. Robust activation of these genes was also observed in chondrocyte cells following 5-aza-dC treatment. We also examined the transcription factor snail which has been reported to be an important mediator of epithelial to mesenchymal transitions (EMTs). In chondrosarcoma cells snail is downregulated suggesting a role for loss of snail expression in lineage maintenance. Taken together, these results document an epigenetic switch associated with an MET-like phenomenon that accompanies chondrosarcoma progression.Sarcoma 01/2011; 2011:598218.