Imaging features of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Eur Radiol

University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Flemish, Belgium
European Radiology (Impact Factor: 4.01). 09/2003; 13(8):1809-19. DOI: 10.1007/s00330-002-1609-6
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this article is to review the imaging characteristics of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Skeletal tuberculosis represents one-third of all cases of tuberculosis occurring in extrapulmonary sites. Hematogenous spread from a distant focus elsewhere in the body is the cornerstone in the understanding of imaging features of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. The most common presentations are tuberculous spondylitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and soft tissue involvement. The diagnostic value of the different imaging techniques, which include conventional radiography, CT, and MR imaging, are emphasized. Whereas conventional radiography is the mainstay in the diagnosis of tuberculous arthritis and osteomyelitis, MR imaging may detect associated bone marrow and soft tissue abnormalities. MR imaging is generally accepted as the imaging modality of choice for diagnosis, demonstration of the extent of the disease of tuberculous spondylitis, and soft tissue tuberculosis. Moreover, it may be very helpful in the differential diagnosis with pyogenic spondylodiscitis, as it may easily demonstrate anterior corner destruction, the relative preservation of the intervertebral disk, multilevel involvement with or without skip lesions, and a large soft tissue abscess, as these are all arguments in favor of a tuberculous spondylitis. On the other hand, CT is still superior in the demonstration of calcifications, which are found in chronic tuberculous abscesses.

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    • "MAI is a ubiquitous organism , present even in water sources, and it can adulterate injectable solutions [124]. PD is a nonsuppurative ReA that occurs in association with TB [125]. This mainly occurs in patients with extrapulmonary TB, and erythema nodosum is a characteristic finding, although not pathognomonic [126]. "
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    Bailli&egrave re s Best Practice and Research in Clinical Rheumatology 05/2015; 28(6). DOI:10.1016/j.berh.2015.04.009 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    • "Radiological features of musculoskeletal TB are non-specific, but may include bone marrow edema, osteoporosis or lytic lesions [8] [9]. The surrounding tissue may show synovitis, joint effusions, tenosynovitis, soft tissue collections, or myositis [8] [9]. The affected bone appears expanded on the X-ray with lytic lesions in the middle (as seen in the present case) and subperiosteal new bone formation along the involved bone. "
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    International Journal of Mycobacteriology 12/2012; 1(4):215–217. DOI:10.1016/j.ijmyco.2012.09.003
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    • "The route of infection is usually through the respiratory tract, although infection occasionally occurs through the intestinal tract. Osseous alterations are associated with only 1–3 % of the TB cases (Tuli, 2004; Vanhoenacker et al., 2009). Bone alterations develop slowly after the haematogenous dissemination from the remote septic foci. "
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