Imaging features of musculoskeletal tuberculosis
ABSTRACT The purpose of this article is to review the imaging characteristics of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Skeletal tuberculosis represents one-third of all cases of tuberculosis occurring in extrapulmonary sites. Hematogenous spread from a distant focus elsewhere in the body is the cornerstone in the understanding of imaging features of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. The most common presentations are tuberculous spondylitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and soft tissue involvement. The diagnostic value of the different imaging techniques, which include conventional radiography, CT, and MR imaging, are emphasized. Whereas conventional radiography is the mainstay in the diagnosis of tuberculous arthritis and osteomyelitis, MR imaging may detect associated bone marrow and soft tissue abnormalities. MR imaging is generally accepted as the imaging modality of choice for diagnosis, demonstration of the extent of the disease of tuberculous spondylitis, and soft tissue tuberculosis. Moreover, it may be very helpful in the differential diagnosis with pyogenic spondylodiscitis, as it may easily demonstrate anterior corner destruction, the relative preservation of the intervertebral disk, multilevel involvement with or without skip lesions, and a large soft tissue abscess, as these are all arguments in favor of a tuberculous spondylitis. On the other hand, CT is still superior in the demonstration of calcifications, which are found in chronic tuberculous abscesses.
- SourceAvailable from: György Pálfi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Osseous ankylosis of large joints that occurs secondary to infection is rarely described in developed countries, thanks to diagnostic techniques that allow early detection and treatment of the underlying infection. Evidence of the natural history and progression of the disease is now primarily studied through the observation and analysis of osteoarcheological specimens, and medical reports or books dating from the pre-antibiotic era. This report illustrates several cases where modern medical imaging techniques and ancient medical literature were successfully interpreted to diagnose rare, advanced-stage tuberculous alterations in osteoarcheological specimens. Two skeletons from the Bátmonostor cemetery (Hungary) demonstrate complete unilateral ankylosis of the knee. Macroscopic and radiographic examinations were undertaken to assess the extent of skeletal changes and determine their cause. Data obtained from computed tomography (CT) were constructed in 2D and 3D. The 2D CT images revealed cavities involving both the metaphyses and the epiphyses. The 3D reconstructions allowed us to reconstruct the more precise volumetric morphology of the circumscribed lytic lesions, as well as clear ‘image-mirror’ lacunar volumes. On the basis of the macroscopic and radiological analyses, extra-spinal tuberculous infection seems to have been the most probable etiology of these two cases.International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 11/2012; 2012(Wiley Online Library). DOI:10.1002/oa.2284 · 0.95 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis, one of the most ancient human diseases, was present in ancient Egypt and has been observed since predynastic times. Excavations in the predynastic to early dynastic necropolis of Adaima, Upper Egypt (3500–2700 BC) led to the discovery of a number of remarkably well-preserved skeletons of children. The skeletal remains of a 4.5–5-year-old child dated from Nagada III A2 (3200–3100 BC) displayed various lesions on the post-cranial skeleton: spondylitis on the thoracic (T12) and lumbar (L1) vertebrae, partial lytic destruction of the right radio-ulnar joint, lytic lesions on the scapula and a clavicle, dactylitis on the short bones of hands and feet, enlargement (spina ventosa) and periosteal new bone formation on the long bones. Radiographs show well-defined radiolucent (cyst-like) lesions in the metaphysis and the diaphysis of long tubular bones (ulna, radius, femur, tibia, fibula). The lesions recorded during macroscopic and radiological analysis strongly suggest a case of multiple bone tuberculosis. The occurrence of this case of tuberculosis in a child provides a picture of a period where tuberculosis must have been endemic throughout the population living during the origins of urban settlement in Upper Egypt during the predynastic period. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 11/2010; 20(6):719 - 730. DOI:10.1002/oa.1082 · 0.95 Impact Factor
- Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 02/2005; 37(6-7):540-2. DOI:10.1080/00365540510037830 · 1.64 Impact Factor