Effect of age and gender on heart rate recovery after submaximal exercise during cardiac rehabilitation in patients with angina pectoris, recent acute myocardial infarction, or coronary bypass surgery.

Cardiac Health Center, Weill-Cornell Medical Center, The New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York 10021, USA.
The American Journal of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 3.43). 10/2003; 92(5):600-3. DOI: 10.1016/S0002-9149(03)00733-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The effect of exercise training on the heart rate recovery (HRR) response to submaximal effort was examined in 81 patients during 12 weeks of phase II cardiac rehabilitation. Although HRR after submaximal effort was relatively reduced in older patients with heart disease and in women, its increase during exercise training in men and women of all ages was consistent with enhancement of parasympathetic tone during activities of daily living.

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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Physical therapy during phase I of cardiac rehabilitation (CPT) can be started 12 to 24 hours after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), however, it is common to extend the bed rest due to fear of patient’s instability. OBJECTIVES: To assess the hemodynamic and autonomic responses to post-AMI patients when subjected to first day of phase I protocol of CPT, as well as their safety. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 51 patients with first uncomplicated AMI, 55 ± 11 years, 76% men. The patients were subjected to first day protocol phase I CPT, on average, 24 hours after AMI. The Instantaneous heart rate (HR) and RR interval were acquired by HR monitor (Polar™S810i) and blood pressure (BP) checked by auscultation. HR variability was analyzed in the time (RMSSD and RMSM-Ri in ms) and frequency domains. Power spectral density was expressed in absolute (ms2/Hz) and normalized (nu) units for the bands of low (LF) and high frequencies (HF) and as LF/HF ratio. RESULTS: The RMSSD, HF and HFnu have reduced performance of the exercises in relation to rest and post-exercise (p < 0.05), LFnu and LF/HF ratio increased (p < 0.05). HR and systolic BP showed an increase during the execution of the exercises in relation to rest (p < 0.05). There were no any signs and/or symptoms of exercise intolerance. CONCLUSION: The exercise was effective, because it caused changes hemodynamic and autonomic modulation in these patients, without causing any medical complications.
    03/2012; 25(1):153-163. DOI:10.1590/S0103-51502012000100015
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    ABSTRACT: Dimkpa U. Post-exercise heart rate recovery: an index of cardiovascular fitness. JEPonline 2009;12(1):19-22. Cardiovascular fitness has traditionally been assessed by such variables as resting heart rate (HR), resting blood pressure (BP), cardiac output, stroke volume (SV), maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 max), endurance capacity, HDL cholesterol, body fat, glucose-stimulated insulin, and total cholesterol. Post-exercise heart rate recovery, though a readily obtainable parameter and a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in healthy adults and in those with cardiovascular diseases, is often overlooked as an indicator of cardiovascular fitness. Heart rate recovery (HRR) is mainly thought to be due to parasympathetic reactivation and has been shown to be a remarkable complement to a medical and/or physical assessment of an individual. Clinical application of HRR after exercise has been widely studied. A delayed decline of heart rate has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, autonomic dysfunction, diabetes, endothelial dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Similarly, HRR is associated with some cardiovascular fitness indices such as, maximum oxygen uptake, endurance capacity and central hemodynamic variables like resting heart rate, and resting blood pressure. In conclusion, the post-exercise HRR provides information that is complementary to the traditional cardiovascular fitness indices and should be added to the list of indicators of cardiovascular fitness.
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate the utility of a submaximal heart rate recovery (HRR) test to monitor changes in cardiac fitness after aerobic training. Twenty healthy subjects were assigned to a control (n=10) or a training (n=10) group. Subjects in the training group performed 8 weeks of bicycle training, followed by 8 weeks of detraining. HRR was assessed after exercises at 65% and 80% HRmax. The HRR test was performed at weeks 0 (W0), 4 (W4), 8 (W8) and 16 (W16) in the training group and at W0 and W8 in the control group. HRR indices changed in response to training and detraining. Absolute HR recovery at 60, 120 and 180 seconds after exercise increased at both exercise intensities at W8 of training (p<0.01, W8 vs. W0), and returned to the pretraining level after detraining (p>0.05, W16 vs. W0). Time constants of fast HRR recovery (<1 min) changed with training (p<0.05-0.01, W8 vs. W0) and detraining (p>0.05, W16 vs. W0), but only at 65% HRmax. At the end of the 3-minute recovery period, the predicted HR value (A0) and the HR recovered (Amax) from the mono-exponential analysis changed with training (p<0.05-0.01 W8 vs. W0) and detraining (p>0.05. W16 vs. W0). We conclude that this novel submaximal HRR test is highly sensitive for monitoring cardiac fitness during training and detraining in healthy people. Since this test is simple, inexpensive, and the data are reliable and easy to analyze, we hope that it may be of interest to the sports science community.
    The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 09/2014; DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000685 · 1.80 Impact Factor