Bone-marrow-derived myofibroblasts contribute to the cancer-induced stromal reaction.
ABSTRACT To confirm whether human cancer-induced stromal cells are derived from bone marrow, bone marrow (BM) cells obtained from beta-galactosidase transgenic and recombination activating gene 1 (RAG-1) deficient double-mutant mice (H-2b) were transplanted into sublethally irradiated severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice (H-2d). The human pancreatic cancer cell line Capan-1 was subcutaneously xenotransplanted into SCID recipients and stromal formation was analyzed on day 14 and on day 28. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence studies revealed that BM-derived endothelial cells (X-gal/CD31 or H-2b/CD31 double-positive cells) and myofibroblasts (X-gal/alpha-smooth muscle actin or H-2b/alpha-smooth muscle actin double-positive cells) were present within and around the cancer nests. On day 14, the frequencies of BM-derived endothelial cells and BM-derived myofibroblasts were 25.3+/-4.4% and 12.7+/-9.6%, respectively. On day 28, the frequency of BM-derived endothelial cells was 26.7+/-9.7%, which was similar to the value on day 14. However, the frequency of BM-derived myofibroblasts was significantly higher (39.8+/-17.1%) on day 28 than on day 14 (P<0.05). The topoisomerase IIalpha-positive ratio was 2.2+/-1.2% for the H-2b-positive myofibroblasts, as opposed to only 0.3+/-0.4% for the H-2b-negative myofibroblasts, significant proliferative activity was observed in the BM-derived myofibroblasts (P<0.05). Our results indicate that BM-derived myofibroblasts become a major component of cancer-induced stromal cells in the later stage of tumor development.
- SourceAvailable from: Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Compelling evidence show that Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels are finely regulated in the cell and can act as "second messengers" in response to diverse stimuli. In tumor epithelial cells, ROS accumulate abnormally and induce signaling cascades that mediate the oncogenic phenotype. In addition to their impact on tumor epithelial cells, ROS also affect the surrounding cells that constitute the tumor microenvironment. Indeed, ROS production increases tumor angiogenesis, drives the onset of inflammation and promotes conversion of fibroblast into myofibroblasts. These cells, initially identified upon wound healing, exhibit similar properties to those observed in fibroblasts associated with aggressive adenocarcinomas. Indeed, analyses of tumors with distinct severity revealed the existence of multiple distinct co-existing subtypes of Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs), with specific marker protein profiling. Chronic oxidative stress deeply modifies the proportion of these different fibroblast subtypes, further supporting tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. At last, ROS have been implicated in the metabolic reprogramming of both cancer cells and CAFs, allowing an adaptation to oxidative stress that ultimately promotes tumorigenesis and chemoresistance. In this review, we discuss the role of ROS in cancer cells and CAFs and their impact on tumor initiation, progression and metastasis.Seminars in Cancer Biology 01/2014; · 9.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSC) have anti-tumorigenic activities. Here we hypothesized that circulating BMMSC are incorporated into tumors and protect tumor cells from therapy-induced apoptosis. Adherent cells harvested from murine bone marrow and expressing phenotypic and functional characteristics of BMMSC were tested for their anti-tumor activity against murine 4T1 mammary adenocarcinoma and LL/2 Lewis lung carcinoma cells. BMMSC but not NIH3T3 or murine skin fibroblasts stimulated the expansion of 4T1 cells in 3D co-cultures, and conditioned medium from these cells increased the viability of 4T1 and LL/2 cells in 2D cultures. 4T1 cells exposed to BMMSC conditioned medium exhibited a 2-fold reduction in apoptosis under low serum concentrations (0.5 to 1%). Furthermore, exposure of 4T1 and LL/2 cells to BMMSC conditioned medium increased their viability in the presence of paclitaxel or doxorubicin at therapeutic concentrations. This effect was accompanied by reductions in caspase-3 activity and Annexin V expression. When co-injected with 4T1 cells in the mammary fat pad of mice subsequently treated with doxorubicin, BMMSC (and not fibroblasts) also inhibited drug-induced apoptosis in tumor cells by 44 percent. We demonstrated that BMMSC were attracted by 4T1 and LL/2 cells but not by NIH3T3 cells in vitro and that when injected intravenously in 4T1 tumor bearing mice, these cells (and not NIH 3T3) were specifically detected in tumors within 12 to 18 days where they preferentially localized at the invasive front. Overall, our data identify BMMSC as an important mediator of tumor cell survival and treatment resistance in primary tumors.Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 02/2014; · 5.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fibroblasts regulate the structure and function of healthy tissues, participate transiently in tissue repair after acute inflammation, and assume an aberrant stimulatory role during chronic inflammatory states including cancer. Such cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) modulate the tumor microenvironment and influence the behavior of neoplastic cells in either a tumor-promoting or tumor-inhibiting manner. These pleiotropic functions highlight the inherent plasticity of fibroblasts and may provide new avenues to understand and therapeutically intervene in malignancies. We discuss the emerging themes of CAF biology in the context of tumorigenesis and therapy.The Journal of Cell Biology 07/2014; 211(8):1503-23. · 9.69 Impact Factor