Vitamin D deficiency is a putative, pathogenic cofactor in the increase in osteopenia and osteoporosis seen in patients with Crohn's disease.
To determine the frequency of low serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 (25-OHD) levels and the associated alterations in bone mineral density in a cohort of adults with Crohn's disease.
25-OHD levels were determined in 242 consecutive patients with Crohn's disease seen in two tertiary inflammatory bowel disease referral centres. Bone mineral density was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry.
Nineteen (8%) patients exhibited vitamin D deficiency (25-OHD less than 25 nmol/L) and 52 (22%) patients exhibited vitamin D insufficiency (25-OHD less than 40 nmol/L). Mean T-scores at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip and ultradistal radius in the group with low 25-OHD did not differ from those of the normal 25-OHD group. Serum alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone levels were higher in the low 25-OHD group than in the normal group. Decreased red blood cell (RBC) folate predicted low 25-OHD in male patients, while smoking, RBC folate and serum iron predicted low 25-OHD in female patients. The rate of low 25-OHD deficiency in the winter was significantly higher than that in the summer (11.9% versus 2.8%, respectively).
Vitamin D-deficient Crohn's disease patients exhibit biochemical evidence of metabolic bone disease, without detectable differences in bone mineral density. Sunlight exposure, nutrition and smoking status were predictors of vitamin D deficiency in this patient cohort.
"However, sunshine and UVB are hypothesized to have beneficial effects . Both diseases have been associated with lower serum 25[OH] vitamin D levels [16,17] but the association is stronger with CD [2,18-23]. Although, not yet proven two trials have been published using supplemental vitamin D for therapy of CD . One suggested a possible reduction in clinical relapse . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 25(OH) vitamin D levels may be low in patients with moderately or severely active inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: Crohn's disease and Idiopathic Ulcerative Colitis) but this is less clear in patients with mild or inactive IBD. Furthermore there is limited information of any family influence on 25(OH) vitamin D levels in IBD. As a possible risk factor we hypothesize that vitamin D levels may also be low in families of IBD patients.Objectives: To evaluate 25[OH] vitamin D levels in patients with IBD in remission or with mild activity. A second objective is to evaluate whether there are relationships within IBD family units of 25[OH] vitamin D and what are the influences associated with these levels.
Participants underwent medical history, physical examination and a 114 item diet questionnaire. Serum 25[OH] vitamin D was measured, using a radioimmunoassay kit, (replete >= 75, insufficient 50--74, deficient < 25--50, or severely deficient < 25 nmol/L). Associations between 25[OH] vitamin D and twenty variables were evaluated using univariate regression. Multivariable analysis was also applied and intrafamilial dynamics were assessed.
55 patients and 48 controls with their respective families participated (N206). 25[OH] vitamin D levels between patients and controls were similar (71.2 +/- 32.8 vs. 68.3 +/-26.2 nmol/L). Vitamin D supplements significantly increased intake but correlation with serum 25[OH] vitamin D was significant only during non sunny months among patients. Within family units, patients' families had mean replete levels (82.3 +/- 34.2 nmol/L) and a modest correlation emerged during sunny months between patients and family (r2 =0.209 p = 0.032). These relationships were less robust and non significant in controls and their families.
In patients with mild or inactive IBD 25[OH] vitamin D levels are less than ideal but are similar to controls. Taken together collectively, the results of this study suggest that patient family dynamics may be different in IBD units from that in control family units. However contrary to the hypothesis, intra familial vitamin D dynamics do not pose additional risks for development of IBD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This document addresses skeletal health assessment in individuals with secondary causes of osteoporosis. Recommendations are based on consensus of the Canadian Panel of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry and invited international experts. Bone mineral density (BMD) testing in these populations is performed in conjunction with careful evaluation of the disease state contributing to bone loss and increased fragility fracture risk, as well as assessment of other contributing risk factors for fracture. The presence of secondary causes of bone loss may further increase the risk of fracture independently of BMD and may necessitate earlier pharmacologic intervention. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is indicated in the initial workup of secondary causes of osteoporosis. The BMD fracture risk relationship is not known for individuals with chronic renal failure (CRF). The BMD testing in this population may be normal in the presence of skeletal fragility, and quantitative bone histomorphometry is better at evaluating skeletal status than BMD in CRF. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a valuable tool in assessing skeletal health in individuals with secondary causes of osteoporosis.
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