Lysosomal enzymes promote mitochondrial oxidant production, cytochrome c release and apoptosis.
ABSTRACT Exposure of mammalian cells to oxidant stress causes early (iron catalysed) lysosomal rupture followed by apoptosis or necrosis. Enhanced intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), presumably of mitochondrial origin, is also observed when cells are exposed to nonoxidant pro-apoptotic agonists of cell death. We hypothesized that ROS generation in this latter case might promote the apoptotic cascade and could arise from effects of released lysosomal materials on mitochondria. Indeed, in intact cells (J774 macrophages, HeLa cells and AG1518 fibroblasts) the lysosomotropic detergent O-methyl-serine dodecylamide hydrochloride (MSDH) causes lysosomal rupture, enhanced intracellular ROS production, and apoptosis. Furthermore, in mixtures of rat liver lysosomes and mitochondria, selective rupture of lysosomes by MSDH promotes mitochondrial ROS production and cytochrome c release, whereas MSDH has no direct effect on ROS generation by purifed mitochondria. Intracellular lysosomal rupture is associated with the release of (among other constituents) cathepsins and activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). We find that addition of purified cathepsins B or D, or of PLA2, causes substantial increases in ROS generation by purified mitochondria. Furthermore, PLA2 - but not cathepsins B or D - causes rupture of semipurified lysosomes, suggesting an amplification mechanism. Thus, initiation of the apoptotic cascade by nonoxidant agonists may involve early release of lysosomal constituents (such as cathepsins B and D) and activation of PLA2, leading to enhanced mitochondrial oxidant production, further lysosomal rupture and, finally, mitochondrial cytochrome c release. Nonoxidant agonists of apoptosis may, thus, act through oxidant mechanisms.
Article: Apoptosis. Baiting death inhibitors.Nature 04/2001; 410(6824):33-4. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To analyze the functional share of individual cathepsins, we developed powerful and specific inhibitors for individual cathepsins using computer graphics of substrate binding pockets based on X-ray crystallography. These new inhibitors were named CLIK group. Epoxy succinate peptide derivatives, CLIK-066, 088, 112, 121, 148, 181, 185 and 187, are typical specific inhibitors for cathepsin L. Aldehyde derivatives CLIK-060 and CLIK-164 showed specific inhibition against cathepsin S and cathepsin K, respectively. We found that pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), a coenzyme form of vitamin B6, inhibits all cathepsins and also new artificially synthesized pyridoxal derivatives, CLIK-071 and -072, in which the phosphate esters of PLP were replaced by propionic acid, exhibited strong inhibition for cathepsins. Furthermore, CLIK-071 was easy to incorporate into cells and showed powerful inhibition for intracellular cathepsins. Using these selective inhibitors, the allotment of individual cathepsin functions in cells has been studied as follows. Cathepsin L and/or K participate in bone resorption based on bone type-1 collagen degradation and the L-type protease inhibitors suppressed the bone resorption. Cathepsins B and S participate in antigen presentations based on antigen processing and invariant chain degradation, respectively. Also cathepsin L participates in cell apoptosis mediated by caspase III activation.Advances in Enzyme Regulation 02/1999; 39:247-60.
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ABSTRACT: Cultured primary hepatocytes pretreated (protected) with the iron chelator deferoxamine or the antioxidant N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD) were resistant to the toxicity of 5 microM naphthazarin (5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) during a 180-min exposure. Hepatocytes exposed to naphthazarin without any protection were abruptly depleted of intracellular reduced glutathione, and the level of cytosolic Ca2+ was rapidly increased. This was followed by lipid peroxidation, measured as accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyalkenals (4-HNA) intra- and extracellularly; decrease in ATP levels; destabilization of lysosomes; and finally cell death. The stability of the lysosomal membranes was evaluated by determining retention of the lysosomotropic weak base acridine orange (AO). Naphthazarin exposure caused leakage of protons from the acidic compartment, as indicated by relocalization of AO to the cytosol. Protection of the cell cultures with deferoxamine or DPPD prevented destabilization of lysosomes and cell killing. It also reduced the loss of ATP but did not prevent the depletion of glutathione or the increase in Ca2+. In cells subjected to naphthazarin exposure, DPPD protection also completely inhibited lipid peroxidation, whereas deferoxamine pretreatment only slightly reduced the intracellular accumulation of MDA and 4-HNA but completely prevented cell rupture and the leakage of these lipid peroxidation products to the medium that took place in large amounts from unprotected cells exposed to naphthazarin. Deferoxamine is taken up by endocytosis and is thus transported to the acidic vacuolar apparatus, whereas the lipophilic DPPD is rapidly distributed throughout the cells. Inhibiting endocytosis during deferoxamine pretreatment, by incubating at +4 degrees C or by preexposure to a mixture of the endocytosis-inhibitors cytochalasin B and monensin, abolished the protective effect of deferoxamine. The findings suggest that naphthazarin-induced cell killing is not caused directly by either thiol oxidation or an increase in cytosolic free Ca2+, but rather is preceded by lysosomal destabilization, which may be prevented either by inhibition of cellular peroxidation in general or by prevention of iron-catalyzed oxidative reactions, and involves peroxidation of cellular membranes, energy depletion, and leakage of lysosomal content. DPPD would protect against cell killing by preventing lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes in general, whereas deferoxamine seems to allow a limited general cellular peroxidation but specifically prevents peroxidation and fragmentation of lysosomal membranes by chelating intralysosomal iron and, consequently, leakage of destructive lysosomal contents with ensuing cell rupture and death. Thus, a certain degree of cellular peroxidation does not appear to be lethal as long as lysosomal membranes are protected, placing lysosomes into a category of cellular loci minora resistentia.Free Radical Biology and Medicine 12/1995; 19(5):565-74. · 5.27 Impact Factor