Lysosomal enzymes promote mitochondrial oxidant production, cytochrome c release and apoptosis.
ABSTRACT Exposure of mammalian cells to oxidant stress causes early (iron catalysed) lysosomal rupture followed by apoptosis or necrosis. Enhanced intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), presumably of mitochondrial origin, is also observed when cells are exposed to nonoxidant pro-apoptotic agonists of cell death. We hypothesized that ROS generation in this latter case might promote the apoptotic cascade and could arise from effects of released lysosomal materials on mitochondria. Indeed, in intact cells (J774 macrophages, HeLa cells and AG1518 fibroblasts) the lysosomotropic detergent O-methyl-serine dodecylamide hydrochloride (MSDH) causes lysosomal rupture, enhanced intracellular ROS production, and apoptosis. Furthermore, in mixtures of rat liver lysosomes and mitochondria, selective rupture of lysosomes by MSDH promotes mitochondrial ROS production and cytochrome c release, whereas MSDH has no direct effect on ROS generation by purifed mitochondria. Intracellular lysosomal rupture is associated with the release of (among other constituents) cathepsins and activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). We find that addition of purified cathepsins B or D, or of PLA2, causes substantial increases in ROS generation by purified mitochondria. Furthermore, PLA2 - but not cathepsins B or D - causes rupture of semipurified lysosomes, suggesting an amplification mechanism. Thus, initiation of the apoptotic cascade by nonoxidant agonists may involve early release of lysosomal constituents (such as cathepsins B and D) and activation of PLA2, leading to enhanced mitochondrial oxidant production, further lysosomal rupture and, finally, mitochondrial cytochrome c release. Nonoxidant agonists of apoptosis may, thus, act through oxidant mechanisms.
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer. Amongst treatments that have been explored, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment that is of interest as it poses ideal advantages such as affinity for cancer cells. This study aimed to determine the correlation between the localization site of a sulfonated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPcS mix) photosensitizer (PS) and its associated cell death pathway in vitro in colorectal cancer cell lines (DLD-1 and CaCo-2). Visible morphological changes were observed in PDT treated cells after 24 h. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected and visualized 1 h after PDT. ZnPcS mix was predominantly localized in lysosomes and partially in the mitochondria. FITC Annexin V staining showed a significant decrease in the percentage of viable DLD-1 and CaCo-2 cells 24 h after PDT, with an increase in apoptotic cell population. Moreover, there was a significant increase in both cathepsin D and cytochrome C at 1 and 24 h. In conclusion, ZnPcS mix showed the ability of inducing apoptotic cell death features in PDT treated cells.03/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Despite extensive research on copper toxicity the mechanisms involved are not fully characterized. There have been many recent reports concerning the relationship between epigenetic factors and cell metabolism, but the effects of copper exposure on epigenetic factors have not been investigated. In this study, an in vitro culture system was employed to study the influence of copper on apoptosis and epigenetic factors in PC12 cells. When PC12 cells were exposed to copper, DNA damage was observed as DNA fragmentation. In addition, cytosolic cytochrome c levels were increased by copper treatment. These results suggested that copper induced apoptosis via an oxidative stress pathway. This was consistent with the observation that copper-induced apoptosis was enhanced by further oxidative stress induced by exposing cells to H2O2. In addition, the epigenetic factors were significantly increased in apoptotic cells following exposure to copper and oxidative stress.Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A 07/2014; 49(9). · 1.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The search for new compounds that induce p53-independent apoptosis is the focus of many studies in cancer biology because these compounds could be more specific and would overcome chemotherapy resistance. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro antitumour activity of a Biphosphinic Palladacycle Complex (BPC) and extended preclinical studies to an in vivo model. Saos-2 cells, a p53-null human osteosarcoma drug-resistant cell line, were treated with BPC in the presence or absence of a cathepsin B inhibitor and a calcium chelator (CA074 and BAPTA-AM, respectively), and several parameters related to apoptosis were evaluated. Preclinical studies were performed with mice that were intravenously inoculated with murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cells and treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BPC (8 mg/kg/day) for ten consecutive days, when lung metastatic nodules were counted. In vitro data show that BPC induces cell death in Saos-2 cells mainly by apoptosis, which was accompanied by the effector caspase-3 activation. These events are most likely related to Bax translocation and increased cytosolic calcium mobilisation, mainly from intracellular compartments. Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilisation (LMP) was also observed after 12 h of BPC exposure. Interestingly, BAPTA-AM and CA074 significantly decreased BPC cytotoxicity, suggesting that both calcium and cathepsin B are required for BPC antitumour activity. In vivo studies demonstrated that BPC protects mice against murine metastatic melanoma. In conclusion, BPC complex is an effective anticancer compound against metastatic murine melanoma. This complex is cytotoxic to the drug-resistant osteosarcoma Saos-2 human tumour cells by inducing apoptosis triggered by calcium signalling and a lysosomal-dependent pathway.European journal of medicinal chemistry 03/2014; 79C:24-33. · 3.27 Impact Factor