Lysosomal enzymes promote mitochondrial oxidant production, cytochrome c release and apoptosis.
ABSTRACT Exposure of mammalian cells to oxidant stress causes early (iron catalysed) lysosomal rupture followed by apoptosis or necrosis. Enhanced intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), presumably of mitochondrial origin, is also observed when cells are exposed to nonoxidant pro-apoptotic agonists of cell death. We hypothesized that ROS generation in this latter case might promote the apoptotic cascade and could arise from effects of released lysosomal materials on mitochondria. Indeed, in intact cells (J774 macrophages, HeLa cells and AG1518 fibroblasts) the lysosomotropic detergent O-methyl-serine dodecylamide hydrochloride (MSDH) causes lysosomal rupture, enhanced intracellular ROS production, and apoptosis. Furthermore, in mixtures of rat liver lysosomes and mitochondria, selective rupture of lysosomes by MSDH promotes mitochondrial ROS production and cytochrome c release, whereas MSDH has no direct effect on ROS generation by purifed mitochondria. Intracellular lysosomal rupture is associated with the release of (among other constituents) cathepsins and activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). We find that addition of purified cathepsins B or D, or of PLA2, causes substantial increases in ROS generation by purified mitochondria. Furthermore, PLA2 - but not cathepsins B or D - causes rupture of semipurified lysosomes, suggesting an amplification mechanism. Thus, initiation of the apoptotic cascade by nonoxidant agonists may involve early release of lysosomal constituents (such as cathepsins B and D) and activation of PLA2, leading to enhanced mitochondrial oxidant production, further lysosomal rupture and, finally, mitochondrial cytochrome c release. Nonoxidant agonists of apoptosis may, thus, act through oxidant mechanisms.
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ABSTRACT: Lysosomal cysteine cathepsins contribute to proteolytic events promoting tumor growth and metastasis. Their enzymatic activity, however, is tightly regulated by endogenous inhibitors. To investigate the role of cathepsin inhibitor stefin B (Stfb) in mammary cancer, Stfb null mice were crossed with transgenic polyoma virus middle T oncogene (PyMT) breast cancer mice. We show that ablation of Stfb resulted in reduced size of mammary tumors but did not affect their rate of metastasis. Importantly, decrease in tumor growth was correlated with an increased incidence of dead cell islands detected in tumors of Stfb-deficient mice. Ex vivo analysis of primary PyMT tumor cells revealed no significant effects of ablation of Stfb expression on proliferation, angiogenesis, migration and spontaneous cell death as compared with control cells. However, upon treatment with the lysosomotropic agent Leu-Leu-OMe, cancer cells lacking Stfb exhibited a significantly higher sensitivity to apoptosis. Moreover, Stfb-ablated tumor cells were significantly more prone to cell death under increased oxidative stress. These results indicate an in vivo role for Stfb in protecting cancer cells by promoting their resistance to oxidative stress and to apoptosis induced through the lysosomal pathway.Oncogene advance online publication, 19 August 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.314.Oncogene 08/2013; · 7.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background:Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as sunitinib and pazopanib display their efficacy in a variety of solid tumours. However, their use in therapy is limited by the lack of evidence about the ability to induce cell death in cancer cells. Our aim was to evaluate cytotoxic effects induced by sunitinib and pazopanib in 5637 and J82 bladder cancer cell lines.Methods:Cell viability was tested by MTT assay. Autophagy was evaluated by western blot using anti-LC3 and anti-p62 antibodies, acridine orange staining and FACS analysis. Oxygen radical generation and necrosis were determined by FACS analysis using DCFDA and PI staining. Cathepsin B activation was evaluated by western blot and fluorogenic Z-Arg-Arg-AMC peptide. Finally, gene expression was performed using RT-PCR Profiler array.Results:We found that sunitinib treatment for 24 h triggers incomplete autophagy, impairs cathepsin B activation and stimulates a lysosomal-dependent necrosis. By contrast, treatment for 48 h with pazopanib induces cathepsin B activation and autophagic cell death, markedly reversed by CA074-Me and 3-MA, cathepsin B and autophagic inhibitors, respectively. Finally, pazopanib upregulates the α-glucosidase and downregulates the TP73 mRNA expression.Conclusion:Our results showing distinct cell death mechanisms activated by different TKIs, provide the biological basis for novel molecularly targeted approaches.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 25 July 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.420 www.bjcancer.com.British Journal of Cancer 07/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine the role of intracellular labile iron pool (LIP), ferritin (Ft) and antioxidant defence in cellular resistance to oxidative stress upon chronic adaptation, a new H2O2-resistant Jurkat T cell line 'HJ16' was developed by gradual adaptation of parental 'J16' cells to high concentrations of H2O2. Compared to J16 cells, HJ16 cells exhibited much higher resistance to H2O2-induced oxidative damage and necrotic cell death (up to 3mM) and had enhanced antioxidant defence in the form of significantly higher intracellular glutathione and mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) levels as well as higher glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) activity. In contrast, the level of the Ft H-subunit (FtH) in the H2O2-adapted cell line was found to be 7-fold lower than in the parental J16 cell line. While H2O2 concentrations higher than 0.1mM fully depleted the glutathione content of J16 cells, in HJ16 cells the same treatments decreased the cellular glutathione content to only half of the original value. In HJ16 cells, H2O2 concentrations higher than 0.1mM increased the level of FtMt up to 4-fold of their control values but had no effect on the FtMt levels in J16 cells. Furthermore, while the basal cytosolic level of LIP was similar in both cell lines, H2O2 treatment substantially increased the cytosolic LIP levels in J16 but not in HJ16 cells. H2O2 treatment also substantially decreased the FtH levels in J16 cells (up to 70% of the control value). In contrast in HJ16 cells, FtH levels were not affected by H2O2 treatment. These results indicate that chronic adaptation of J16 cells to high concentrations of H2O2 has provoked a series of novel and specific cellular adaptive responses that contribute to higher resistance of HJ16 cells to oxidative damage and cell death. These include increased cellular antioxidant defence in the form of higher glutathione and FtMt levels, higher GPx activity and lower FtH levels. Further adaptive responses include the significantly reduced cellular response to oxidant-mediated glutathione depletion, FtH modulation and labile iron release and a significant increase in FtMt levels following H2O2 treatment.Free radical biology & medicine 12/2013; · 5.42 Impact Factor