Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with a deep inferior epigastric perforator flap.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2,Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
Breast Cancer (Impact Factor: 1.51). 02/2003; 10(3):275-80. DOI: 10.1007/BF02966729
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It is important for breast reconstruction after mastectomy to recreate immediately good breast symmetry with an adequate amount of soft tissue.
Eight patients with breast cancer underwent skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with a deep inferior epigastric perforator flap. This operative technique, and the results, advantages, and disadvantages of the technique were assessed.
Seven patients had stage IIA disease, and one patient had stage I disease. An arc-shaped incision was made just at the lateral border of the breast in all patients. Three patients had a separate periareolar incision, and one had a circumferential nipple incision. There was 100% flap survival, and good breast symmetry was achieved in all patients. No major perioperative complications occurred in this series. A small amount of fat necrosis occurred in one flap. One patient had slight abdominal bulging. Minor wound-healing problems at the lateral breast skin envelope occurred in two patients.
These data indicate that skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with a DIEP flap is a reliable and safe technique. This method is a potentially useful surgical technique, which has achieved very promising results.

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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To provide an up-to-date review of the literature on skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) for breast cancer (BC). The article also reviews the oncological safety, effects of radiotherapy (RT) on immediate breast reconstruction (IBR), the indications for preserving the nipple-areola complex (NAC) and the emerging role of allogenic grafts as adjuncts to implant in IBR. Methods: Review of the English literature from 1965 to 2013 was carried out using Medline and PubMed research engines. Results: SSM is oncologically safe in appropriately selected cases of invasive breast cancer (IBC) and ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) including IBC < 5 cm, multi-centric tumours, DCIS and for risk-reduction surgery. Inflammatory breast cancer and tumours with extensive skin involvement represent contra-indications to SSM due to an unacceptable risk of local recurrence. Prior breast irradiation or the need for post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) do not preclude SSM with IBR, however the aesthetic outcome may be compromised by radiation. Preservation of the nipple-areola complex (NAC) has aesthetic and psychological benefits and is safe for peripherally located node negative unifocal tumours. An intraoperative frozen section protocol for the retro-areolar tissue should be performed when NAC preservation is considered. The advent of acellular dermal matrix has enhanced the scope of implant-based immediate reconstruction following SSM. Cell-assisted fat transfer is emerging as a promising technique to optimise the aesthetics outcome. There is no sufficient evidence to support the role of endoscopic mastectomy in clinical practice. Conclusion: Numerous retrospective and prospective studies show that SSM is oncolgically safe in appropriately selected cases and is aesthetically superior to non-SSM mastectomy. New tech-niques such as the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and cell-assisted fat transfer have increased the use of implants for volume replacement following SSM. In the absence of randomized clinical trials, an updated systematic meta-analysis of published studies is required in order to consolidate the evidence.
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