Ischemic preconditioning by caspase cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1.
ABSTRACT A transient, sublethal ischemic interval confers resistance to a subsequent, otherwise lethal ischemic insult, in a process termed ischemic preconditioning. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) normally functions in DNA repair, but extensive PARP-1 activation is a major cause of ischemic cell death. Because PARP-1 can be cleaved and inactivated by caspases, we investigated the possibility that caspase cleavage of PARP-1 could contribute to ischemic preconditioning. Murine cortical cultures were treated with glucose deprivation combined with 0.5 mm 2-deoxyglucose and 5 mm azide ("chemical ischemia") to model the reversible energy failure that occurs during transient ischemia in vivo. Cortical cultures preconditioned with 15 min of chemical ischemia showed increased resistance to subsequent, longer periods of chemical ischemia. These cultures were also more resistant to the PARP-1 activating agent, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, suggesting reduced capacity for PARP-1 activation after preconditioning. Immunostaining for the 89 kDa PARP-1 cleavage fragment and for poly(ADP-ribose) formation confirmed that PARP-1 was cleaved and PARP-1 activity was attenuated in the preconditioned neurons. Preconditioning also produced an increase in activated caspase-3 peptide and an increase in caspase-3 activity in the cortical cultures. A cause-effect relationship between caspase activation, PARP-1 cleavage, and ischemic preconditioning was supported by studies using the caspase inhibitor Ac-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-aldehyde (DEVD-CHO). Cultures treated with DEVD-CHO after preconditioning showed reduced PARP-1 cleavage and reduced resistance to subsequent ischemia. These findings suggest a novel interaction between the caspase- and PARP-1-mediated cell death pathways in which sublethal caspase activation leads to PARP-1 cleavage, thereby increasing resistance to subsequent ischemic stress.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Philippe Garnier, Mar 12, 2014
SourceAvailable from: Zofia M Kiliańska
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence has provided a causative role of zinc (Zn(2+)) in neuronal death following ischemic brain injury. Using a hypoxia model of primary cultured cortical neurons with hypoxia-inducing chemicals, cobalt chloride (1 mM CoCl2), deferoxamine (3 mM DFX), and sodium azide (2 mM NaN3), we evaluated whether Zn(2+) is involved in hypoxic neuronal death. The hypoxic chemicals rapidly elicited intracellular Zn(2+) release/accumulation in viable neurons. The immediate addition of the Zn(2+) chelator, CaEDTA or N,N,N'N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), prevented the intracellular Zn(2+) load and CoCl2-induced neuronal death, but neither 3 hour later Zn(2+) chelation nor a non-Zn(2+) chelator ZnEDTA (1 mM) demonstrated any effects. However, neither CaEDTA nor TPEN rescued neurons from cell death following DFX- or NaN3-induced hypoxia, whereas ZnEDTA rendered them resistant to the hypoxic injury. Instead, the immediate supplementation of Zn(2+) rescued DFX- and NaN3-induced neuronal death. The iron supplementation also afforded neuroprotection against DFX-induced hypoxic injury. Thus, although intracellular Zn(2+) release/accumulation is common during chemical hypoxia, Zn(2+) might differently influence the subsequent fate of neurons; it appears to play a neurotoxic or neuroprotective role depending on the hypoxic chemical used. These results also suggest that different hypoxic chemicals may induce neuronal death via distinct mechanisms.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 01/2015; 9:1. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00001 · 4.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It has been previously revealed that statins used at high concentrations display antileukemic potential towards chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. However, their usage alone in clinical practice may be limited due to possible side effects of high doses of these drugs. On the other hand, combined treatment of leukemia with statins and the conventional chemotherapeutics is questionable because of unknown influence of the first on the standard treatment results. This study has revealed that in vitro atorvastatin increases the proapoptotic potential of cladribine and mafosfamide in CLL cells isolated from peripheral blood of patients. Moreover, a preincubation with the above statin sensitizes leukemic cells to CM-induced apoptosis even at small concentrations of the drug. The usage of atorvastatin together with or followed by the conventional chemotherapy should be considered as therapeutic option for the treatment for this leukemia. Interestingly, CM-resistant patients might have the biggest benefits from atorvastatin administration.03/2015; volume 2015(article ID 162956):1-11. DOI:10.1155/2015/162956