Fre1p Cu2+ reduction and Fet3p Cu1+ oxidation modulate copper toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT Fre1p is a metalloreductase in the yeast plasma membrane that is essential to uptake of environmental Cu2+ and Fe3+. Fet3p is a multicopper oxidase in this membrane essential for high affinity iron uptake. In the uptake of Fe3+, Fre1p produces Fe2+ that is a substrate for Fet3p; the Fe3+ produced by Fet3p is a ligand for the iron permease, Ftr1p. Deletion of FET3 leads to iron deficiency; this deletion also causes a copper sensitivity not seen in wild type. Deletion of FTR1 leads to copper sensitivity also. Production in the ftr1delta strain of an iron-uptake negative Ftr1p mutant, Ftr1p(RAGLA), suppressed this copper sensitivity. This Ftr1p mutant supported the plasma membrane targeting of active Fet3p that is blocked in the parental ftr1delta strain. A ferroxidase-negative Fet3p did not suppress the copper sensitivity in a fet3delta strain, although it supported the plasma membrane localization of the Fet3p.Ftr1p complex. Thus, loss of membrane-associated Fet3p oxidase activity correlated with copper sensitivity. Furthermore, in vitro Cu1+ was shown to be an excellent substrate for Fet3p. Last, the copper sensitivity of the fet3delta strain was suppressed by co-deletion of FRE1, suggesting that the cytotoxic species was Cu1+. In contrast, deletion of CTR1 or of FET4 did not suppress the copper sensitivity in the fet3delta strain; these genes encode the two major copper transporters in laboratory yeast strains. This result indicated that the apparent cuprous ion toxicity was not due to excess intracellular copper. These biochemical and physiologic results indicate that at least with respect to cuprous and ferrous ions, Fet3p can be considered a metallo-oxidase and appears to play an essential role in both iron and copper homeostasis in yeast. Its functional homologs, e.g. ceruloplasmin and hephaestin, could play a similar role in mammals.
- Applied Mycology and Biotechnology 01/2007; 42(15):27-27.
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ABSTRACT: Ferroxidases are essential components of the high-affinity reductive iron assimilation pathway in fungi. Two ferroxidase genes, FET3-1 and FET3-2, have been identified in the genome of the maize anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola. Complementation of growth defects of the ferroxidase-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Δfet3fet4 showed that both Fet3-1 and Fet3-2 of C. graminicola represent functional ferroxidases. Expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein fusions in yeast and C. graminicola indicated that both ferroxidase proteins localize to the plasma membrane. Transcript abundance of FET3-1 increased dramatically under iron-limiting conditions but those of FET3-2 were hardly detectable. Δfet3-1 and Δfet3-2 single as well as Δfet3-1/2 double-deletion strains were generated. Under iron-sufficient or deficient conditions, vegetative growth rates of these strains did not significantly differ from that of the wild type but Δfet3-1 and Δfet3-1/2 strains showed increased sensitivity to reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, under iron-limiting conditions, appressoria of Δfet3-1 and Δfet3-1/2 strains showed significantly reduced transcript abundance of a class V chitin synthase and exhibited severe cell wall defects. Infection assays on intact and wounded maize leaves, quantitative data of infection structure differentiation, and infection stage-specific expression of FET3-1 showed that reductive iron assimilation is required for appressorial penetration, biotrophic development, and full virulence.Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 06/2013; 26(6):695-708. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Passage in mice of opportunistic pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans is known to increase virulence, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in virulence adaptation. Serial mouse passage of nine environmental strains of serotype A C. neoformans identified two highly adapted virulent strains that showed a 4-fold reduction in time to death after four passages. Transcriptome sequencing expression studies demonstrated increased expression of a FRE3-encoded iron reductase in the two strains but not in a control strain that did not demonstrate increased virulence during mouse passage. FRE3 was shown to express an iron reductase activity and to play a role in iron-dependent growth of C. neoformans. Overexpression of FRE3 in the two original environmental strains increased growth in the macrophage cell line J774.16 and increased virulence. These data demonstrate a role for FRE3 in the virulence of C. neoformans and demonstrate how the increased expression of such a "virulence acquisition gene" during the environment-to-mammal transition, can optimize the virulence of environmental strains in mammalian hosts. IMPORTANCE Cryptococcus neoformans is a significant global fungal pathogen that also resides in the environment. Recent studies have suggested that the organism may undergo microevolution in the host. However, little is known about the permitted genetic changes facilitating the adaptation of environmental strains to mammalian hosts. The present studies subjected environmental strains isolated from several metropolitan areas of the United States to serial passages in mice. Transcriptome sequencing expression studies identified the increased expression of an iron reductase gene, FRE3, in two strains that adapted in mice to become highly virulent, and overexpression of FRE3 recapitulated the increased virulence after mouse passage. Iron reductase in yeast is important to iron uptake in a large number of microbial pathogens. These studies demonstrate the capacity of C. neoformans to show reproducible changes in the expression levels of small numbers of genes termed "virulence adaptation genes" to effectively increase pathogenicity during the environment-to-mammal transition.mBio 01/2014; 5(2). · 6.88 Impact Factor