Genetics supersedes epigenetics in colon cancer phenotype.

The Burnham Institute, La Jolla Cancer Center, Cancer Genetics and Epigenetics Program, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
Cancer Cell (Impact Factor: 23.89). 09/2003; 4(2):121-31. DOI: 10.1016/S1535-6108(03)00190-9
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A CpG island DNA methylator phenotype has been postulated to explain silencing of the hMLH1 DNA mismatch repair gene in cancer of the microsatellite mutator phenotype. To evaluate this model, we analyzed methylation in CpG islands from six mutator and suppressor genes, and thirty random genomic sites, in a panel of colorectal cancers. Tumor-specific somatic hypermethylation was a widespread age-dependent process that followed a normal Gaussian distribution. Because there was no discontinuity in methylation rate, our results challenge the methylator phenotype hypothesis and its hypothetical pathological underlying defect. We also show that the mutator phenotype dominates over the gradual accumulation of DNA hypermethylation in determining the genotypic features that govern the phenotypic peculiarities of colon cancer of the mutator pathway.

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of p16 and hMLH1 genes simultaneous methylation in colorectal cancer patients with Microsatellite Instability (MSI) tumors. We also wanted to analyze the relationship with other clinical features, with BRAF gene V600E mutation and with prognosis. Samples from fifty one patients with MSI positive sporadic colorectal cancer were included. DNA was extracted from tumor samples. Promoter methylation was analyzed using bisulfite modification and was detected by quantitative methylation-specific PCR. BRAF gene was amplified using specific primers and mutations were detected by real time PCR. Simultaneous methylation was transformed in a new variable called CMETH2. Frequency of CMETH2 was analyzed and compared with other clinicopathological variables. 33.3 % of patients were positive for CMETH2 and 25 % had BRAF V600E mutation. CMETH2 was related with proximal location, with poorly differentiated tumors and with BRAF V600E mutation. CMETH2 only showed influence in the overall survival (OS) in patients with distal tumors. However, with regard to the disease free survival (DFS) measure, CMETH2 was independent prognostic factor. We were able to discriminate tumors with high methylation features using a transformation analysis of variables into a new computed one (CMETH2). CMETH2 has demonstrated to be a useful prognostic factor in MSI tumors. The prognostic value of CMETH2 in DFS was independent of other clinicopathological variables. The use of CMETH2 could help in the election of the best therapeutic alternative for CCR patients with MSI tumors.
    Tumor Biology 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s13277-014-3027-1 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Somatic hypermethylation of the O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) was previously associated with G > A transition mutations in KRAS and TP53 in colorectal cancer (CRC). We tested the association of MGMT methylation with G > A mutations in KRAS and TP53 in 261 CRCs. Sixteen cases, with and without MGMT hypermethylation, were further analyzed by exome sequencing. No significant association of MGMT methylation with G > A mutations in KRAS, TP53 or in the whole exome was found (p > 0.5 in all comparisons). The result was validated by in silico comparison with 302 CRCs from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) consortium dataset. Transcriptional silencing associated with hypermethylation and stratified into monoallelic and biallelic. We also found a significant clustering (p = 0.001) of aberrant hypermethylation of MGMT and the matrix metalloproteinase gene ADAMTS14 in normal colonic mucosa of CRC patients. This suggested the existence of an epigenetic field defect for cancerization disrupting the methylation patterns of several loci, including MGMT or ADAMTS14, that may lead to predictive biomarkers for CRC. Methylation of these loci in normal mucosa was more frequent in elder (p = 0.001) patients, and particularly in African Americans (p = 1 × 10 −5), thus providing a possible mechanistic link between somatic epigenetic alterations and CRC racial disparities in North America. INTRODUCTION The etiology of oncogenic mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is only explainable in cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI) [1]. MSI is originated by defects in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system and is the hallmark of the Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC) syndrome [2, 3]. Germ line mutations in MMR genes, combined with other somatic alterations in the remaining allele impair MMR and, as a result, hundreds of thousands of spontaneous DNA replication errors accumulate in the genome in the course of multiple consecutive cell replications. MSI is also manifested in approximately 10–15% and 15–20% of non-hereditary CRC and endometrial cancer (EC) [1–4], predominantly as a result of epigenetic silencing of MLH1 linked to promoter hypermethylation [5, 6].
    Oncotarget 01/2015; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The estimation of regional lymph node metastasis (LNM) risk in T1 colorectal cancer is based on histologic examination and imaging of the primary tumor. High-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H) is likely to decrease the possibility of metastasis to either regional lymph nodes or distant organs in colorectal cancers. This study evaluated the clinical implications of MSI in T1 colorectal cancer with emphasis on the usefulness of MSI as a predictive factor for regional LNM. A total of 133 patients who underwent radical resection for T1 colorectal cancer were included. Genomic DNA was extracted from normal and tumor tissues and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Five microsatellite markers, BAT-25, BAT-26, D2S123, D5S346, and D17S250, were used. MSI and clinicopathological parameters were evaluated as potential predictors of LNM using univariate and multivariate analyses. Among 133 T1 colorectal cancer patients, MSI-H, low-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-L), and microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancers accounted for 7.5%, 6%, and 86.5%, respectively. MSI-H tumors showed a female predominance, a proximal location and more retrieved lymph nodes. Twenty-two patients (16.5%) had regional LNM. Lymphovascular invasion and depth of invasion were significantly associated with LNM. There was no LNM in 10 MSI-H patients; however, MSI status was not significantly correlated with LNM. Disease-free survival did not differ between patients with MSI-H and those with MSI-L/MSS. MSI status could serve as a negative predictive factor in estimating LNM in T1 colorectal cancer, given that LNM was not detected in MSI-H patients. However, validation of our result in a different cohort is necessary.
    Yonsei Medical Journal 01/2015; 56(1):175-81. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2015.56.1.175 · 1.26 Impact Factor

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