Smooth and rough lipopolysaccharide phenotypes of Brucella induce different intracellular trafficking and cytokine/chemokine release in human monocytes.
ABSTRACT Virulence of the intracellular pathogen Brucella for humans is mainly associated with its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) phenotype, with smooth LPS phenotypes generally being virulent and rough ones not. The reason for this association is not quite understood. We now demonstrate by flow cytometry, electron microscopy, and ELISA that human peripheral blood monocytes interact both quantitatively and qualitatively different with smooth and rough Brucella organisms in vitro. We confirm that considerably higher numbers of rough than smooth brucellae attach to and enter the monocytes in nonopsonic conditions; but only smooth brucellae replicate in the host cells. We show for the first time that rough brucellae induce higher amounts than smooth brucellae of several CXC (GRO-alpha, IL-8) and CC (MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, MCP-1, RANTES) chemokines, as well as pro- (IL-6, TNF-alpha) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines released by challenged monocytes. Upon uptake, phagosomes containing rough brucellae develop selective fusion competence to form spacious communal compartments, whereas phagosomes containing smooth brucellae are nonfusiogenic. Collectively, our data suggest that rough brucellae attract and infect monocytes more effectively than smooth brucellae, but only smooth LPS phenotypes establish a specific host cell compartment permitting successful parasitism. These novel findings link the LPS phenotype of Brucella and its virulence for humans at the level of the infected host cells. Whether this is due to a direct effect of the LPS molecules or to upstream bacterial mechanisms remains to be established.
Article: Brucella melitensis, B. neotomae and B. ovis elicit common and distinctive macrophage defense transcriptional responses.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Brucella spp. establish an intracellular replicative niche in macrophages, while macrophages attempt to eliminate the bacteria by innate defense mechanisms. Brucella spp. possess similar genomes yet exhibit different macrophage infections. Few B. melitensis and B. neotomae enter macrophages with intracellular adaptation occurring over 4-8 hr. Conversely, B. ovis are readily ingested by macrophages and exhibit a persistent plateau of infection. Evaluating early macrophage interaction with Brucella spp. allows discovery of host entry and intracellular translocation mechanisms. Microarray analysis of macrophage transcriptional response following a 4 hr infection by different Brucella spp. revealed common macrophage genes altered in expression compared to uninfected macrophages. Macrophage infection with three different Brucella spp. provokes a common innate immune theme with increased transcript levels of chemokines and defense response genes and decreased transcript levels of GTPase signaling and cytoskeletal function that may affect trafficking of Brucella containing vesicles. For example, transcript levels of genes associated with chemotaxis (IL-1beta, MIP-1alpha), cytokine regulation (Socs3) and defense (Fas, Tnf) were increased, while transcript levels of genes associated with vesicular trafficking (Rab3d) and lysosomal associated enzymes (prosaposin) were decreased. Genes with altered macrophage transcript levels among Brucella spp. infections may correlate with species specific host defenses and intracellular survival strategies. Depending on the infecting Brucella species, gene ontology categorization identified genes differentially involved in cell growth and maintenance, endopeptidase inhibitor activity and G-protein mediated signaling. Examples of decreased gene expression in B. melitensis infection but not other Brucella spp. were growth arrest (Gas2), immunoglobulin receptor (FcgammarI) and chemokine receptor (Cxcr4) genes, suggesting opposing effects on intracellular functions.Experimental Biology and Medicine 12/2009; 234(12):1450-67. · 2.64 Impact Factor
Article: A review of Brucella infection in marine mammals, with special emphasis on Brucella pinnipedialis in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: Brucella spp. were isolated from marine mammals for the first time in 1994. Two novel species were later included in the genus; Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis, with cetaceans and seals as their preferred hosts, respectively. Brucella spp. have since been isolated from a variety of marine mammals. Pathological changes, including lesions of the reproductive organs and associated abortions, have only been registered in cetaceans. The zoonotic potential differs among the marine mammal Brucella strains. Many techniques, both classical typing and molecular microbiology, have been utilised for characterisation of the marine mammal Brucella spp. and the change from the band-based approaches to the sequence-based approaches has greatly increased our knowledge about these strains. Several clusters have been identified within the B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis species, and multiple studies have shown that the hooded seal isolates differ from other pinniped isolates. We describe how different molecular methods have contributed to species identification and differentiation of B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis, with special emphasis on the hooded seal isolates. We further discuss the potential role of B. pinnipedialis for the declining Northwest Atlantic hooded seal population.Veterinary Research 08/2011; 42(1):93. · 4.06 Impact Factor
Article: Differential expression of iron acquisition genes by Brucella melitensis and Brucella canis during macrophage infection.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Brucella spp. cause chronic zoonotic disease often affecting individuals and animals in impoverished economic or public health conditions; however, these bacteria do not have obvious virulence factors. Restriction of iron availability to pathogens is an effective strategy of host defense. For brucellae, virulence depends on the ability to survive and replicate within the host cell where iron is an essential nutrient for the growth and survival of both mammalian and bacterial cells. Iron is a particularly scarce nutrient for bacteria with an intracellular lifestyle. Brucella melitensis and Brucella canis share ~99% of their genomes but differ in intracellular lifestyles. To identify differences, gene transcription of these two pathogens was examined during infection of murine macrophages and compared to broth grown bacteria. Transcriptome analysis of B. melitensis and B. canis revealed differences of genes involved in iron transport. Gene transcription of the TonB, enterobactin, and ferric anguibactin transport systems was increased in B. canis but not B. melitensis during infection of macrophages. The data suggest differences in iron requirements that may contribute to differences observed in the lifestyles of these closely related pathogens. The initial importance of iron for B. canis but not for B. melitensis helps elucidate differing intracellular survival strategies for two closely related bacteria and provides insight for controlling these pathogens.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e31747. · 4.09 Impact Factor