Ethanol induces transforming growth factor-alpha expression in hepatocytes, leading to stimulation of collagen synthesis by hepatic stellate cells.
ABSTRACT Liver fibrosis often develops in alcoholic liver diseases without accompanying inflammation; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Using ethanol-exposed human HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells as a model for alcoholic liver diseases, we previously found that ethanol exposure causes HepG2 cells to secrete an approximately 6,000 Da nonheparin-binding polypeptide that stimulates collagen synthesis in human IMR-90 fibroblasts. The aim of the current study was to characterize and identify this factor.
Concentration of type I procollagen peptide and transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TGF-alpha protein expression was examined by Western blot. Type I collagen messenger RNA expression in rat hepatic stellate cells was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
The collagen-stimulating activity in conditioned media from ethanol-exposed HepG2 cells to stimulate type I procollagen peptide synthesis of IMR-90 cells was specifically inhibited by addition of anti-TGF-alpha antibodies. Western blot analysis showed increased TGF-alpha protein expression in ethanol-treated HepG2 cells. TGF-alpha in conditioned medium from ethanol-exposed HepG2 cells stimulated type-I collagen messenger RNA expression in rat hepatic stellate cells.
These results suggest that TGF-alpha derived from ethanol-exposed hepatocytes may contribute to the development of hepatic fibrosis in alcoholic liver diseases.
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ABSTRACT: It is well established that alcoholism is associated with imbalanced immune responses. To date, most relevant finding reported is the existence of an immunodepressed state which leads to a higher risk of suffering from severe infections in alcoholic patients. However, recent studies have shown that ethanol intake is followed by changes involving the synthesis and serum levels of specific cytokines as well as the activation of several different subsets of cytotoxic lymphocytes, that could be involved in the development of alcoholic liver disease. Accordingly, tumor necrosis factor-alpha plays a key role in the development of alcoholic liver damage through the induction of both apoptosis and necrosis of hepatocytes. This cytokine, together with interleukin (IL) 1, IL6 and several chemokines, facilitate the development of inflammation of the liver. Additionally, both transforming growth factor-beta and platelet-derived growth factor, act over stellate cells favouring hepatic fibrogenesis. The advances in the knowledge of the immunological mechanisms involved in alcoholic liver disease may lead to the discovery of new potential therapeutic targets, which may modify disease outcome in the near future.Medicina Clínica 09/2005; 125(7):263-269. DOI:10.1157/13078101 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted in order to investigate whether hepatitis B surface S protein (HBs) was able to directly or indirectly promote the proliferation and expression of collagen type I (Col I) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The LX-2 human cell line and the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line were employed as HSCs and as hepatocytes, respectively. Recombinant HBs was added to the LX-2 cells for 48 h and the cell proliferation was assessed by the MTT assay. Col I and α-SMA were measured in the supernatant by ELISA, following treatment of the LX-2 and/or HepG2 cells with recombinant HBs. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was also determined by ELISA in the HepG2 cell supernatants. The data demonstrated that high concentrations of recombinant HBs (10-50 ng/ml) inhibited the proliferation of LX-2 cells, whereas low concentrations (0.5-5 ng/ml) did not affect LX-2 cell proliferation. After treating LX-2 cells alone with recombinant HBs for 48 h, there was no significant increase in the Col I and α-SMA levels. However, Col I was increased ~1.7-fold in co-cultured (LX-2 and HepG2) cell supernatants following treatment with HBs for 24 h (HBs vs. control group: 48.51±3.51 vs. 28.23±2.55 ng/ml, respectively). Furthermore, TGF-β1 was significantly increased in the HepG2 cell supernatants following treatment with recombinant HBs. Therefore, we concluded that HBs directly affected the proliferation of HSCs, but promoted the Col I expression in HSCs possibly by virtue of hepatocytes secreting TGF-β1. This may provide a novel explanation of the fibrogenetic mechanism induced by hepatitis B virus-related proteins.01/2014; 2(1):97-100. DOI:10.3892/br.2013.201
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ABSTRACT: We investigated whether liver injury by dual exposure to ethanol and carbon tetrachloride (EtOH + CCl4) for 15 weeks would persist after hepatotoxic agents were removed (EtOH + CCl4/8wR). After 15 weeks of hepatic injury with ethanol (5.5%, m/v) and carbon tetrachloride (0.05, mL/kg, ip), 5 of 11 female Wistar rats were sacrificed. The other 6 rats were maintained for an additional 8 weeks without hepatotoxic agents. Ultrasonography showed increased liver echogenicity and dilation of portal vein caliber in both groups (EtOH + CCl4: 0.22 ± 0.01 cm, P < 0.001; EtOH + CCl4/8wR: 0.21 ± 0.02 cm, P < 0.01) vs control (0.16 ± 0.02 cm). Histopathology showed regenerative nodules in both experimental groups. Histomorphometry revealed increased fibrosis content in both groups (EtOH + CCl4: 12.6 ± 2.64%, P < 0.001; EtOH + CCl4/8wR: 10.4 ± 1.36%, P < 0.05) vs control (2.2 ± 1.21%). Collagen types I and III were increased in groups EtOH + CCl4 (collagen I: 2.5 ± 1.3%, P < 0.01; collagen III: 1.3 ± 0.2%, P < 0.05) and EtOH + CCl4/8wR (collagen I: 1.8 ± 0.06%, P < 0.05; collagen III: 1.5 ± 0.8%, P < 0.01) vs control (collagen I: 0.38 ± 0.11%; collagen III: 0.25 ± 0.06%). Tissue transglutaminase increased in both groups (EtOH + CCl4: 66.4 ± 8%, P < 0.01; EtOH + CCl4/8wR: 58.8 ± 21%, P < 0.01) vs control (7.9 ± 0.8%). Cirrhosis caused by the association of CCl4-EtOH remained for at least 8 weeks after removal of these hepatotoxic agents. Ultrasound images can be a useful tool to evaluate advanced hepatic alterations.Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 11/2008; 41(11):992-999. DOI:10.1590/S0100-879X2008001100008 · 1.03 Impact Factor