Liver fibrosis often develops in alcoholic liver diseases without accompanying inflammation; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Using ethanol-exposed human HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells as a model for alcoholic liver diseases, we previously found that ethanol exposure causes HepG2 cells to secrete an approximately 6,000 Da nonheparin-binding polypeptide that stimulates collagen synthesis in human IMR-90 fibroblasts. The aim of the current study was to characterize and identify this factor.
Concentration of type I procollagen peptide and transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TGF-alpha protein expression was examined by Western blot. Type I collagen messenger RNA expression in rat hepatic stellate cells was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
The collagen-stimulating activity in conditioned media from ethanol-exposed HepG2 cells to stimulate type I procollagen peptide synthesis of IMR-90 cells was specifically inhibited by addition of anti-TGF-alpha antibodies. Western blot analysis showed increased TGF-alpha protein expression in ethanol-treated HepG2 cells. TGF-alpha in conditioned medium from ethanol-exposed HepG2 cells stimulated type-I collagen messenger RNA expression in rat hepatic stellate cells.
These results suggest that TGF-alpha derived from ethanol-exposed hepatocytes may contribute to the development of hepatic fibrosis in alcoholic liver diseases.
"Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress are the major causes of liver damage and involved in the development of hepatic fibrosis by inducing hepatic stellate cells (HSC) proliferation and collagen synthesis . Oxidative stress also promotes pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which are able to stimulate collagen synthesis [5,6]. Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1) was an important inhibitor of inflammation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an antioxidant defense enzyme, has been shown to protect against oxidant-induced liver injury. However, its role on liver fibrosis remains unclear. This study aims to elucidate the effect and the mechanism of HO-1 in nutritional fibrosing steatohepatitis in mice.
Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet for eight weeks to induce hepatic fibrosis. HO-1 chemical inducer (hemin), HO-1 chemical inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX) and/or adenovirus carrying HO-1 gene (Ad-HO-1) were administered to mice, respectively. Liver injury was assessed by serum ALT, AST levels and histological examination; hepatic lipid peroxides levels were determined; the expression levels of several fibrogenic related genes were assayed by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot.
MCD feeding mice showed progressive hepatic injury including hepatic steatosis, inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Induction of HO-1 by hemin or Ad-HO-1 significantly attenuated the severity of liver injury. This effect was associated with the up-regulation of HO-1, reduction of hepatic lipid peroxides levels, down-regulation of inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 as well as the pro-fibrotic genes alpha-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β1, matrix metallopeptidase-2 and matrix metallopeptidase-9. A contrary effect was observed in mice treated with ZnPP-IX.
The present study provided the evidence for the protective role of HO-1 in ameliorating MCD diet-induced fibrosing steatohepatitis. Modulation of HO-1 expression might serve as a therapeutic approach for fibrotic steatohepatitis.
Lipids in Health and Disease 02/2011; 10(1):31. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-10-31 · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of methionine to S-adenosylmethionine is depressed in alcoholics. Its repletion opposes alcoholic liver cirrhosis in baboons, decreases mortality in cirrhotic patients, and opposes oxidative stress resulting from cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) induction by alcohol, ketones, and fatty acids. Their excess causes alcoholic and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. CYP2E1 is also induced in Kupffer cells, promoting their activation and release of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. The TNF-alpha inhibitor pentoxifylline decreased mortality from alcoholic hepatitis. Polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC), an antioxidant phosphatidylcholine mixture extracted from soybeans, 50% of which consists of the highly bioavailable dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine, restores phospholipids of the damaged membranes and reactivates their enzymes, including phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase, needed for phospholipid regeneration. In baboons, PPC prevented cirrhosis by stimulating collagenase and by opposing lipid peroxidation, which produces the fibrogenic hydroxynonenal. PPC was beneficial in patients with alcoholic hepatitis, and it opposed fibrosis in heavy drinkers and decreased aminotransferases in patients with hepatitis C. The antioxidant silymarin also successfully opposed alcoholic cirrhosis in baboons and in some but not all clinical trials; this effect also pertains to a-tocopherol. The anti-inflammatory corticosteroids and colchicine yielded mixed results. Finally, replacing long-chain with medium-chain triglycerides opposed the fatty liver experimentally and clinically.
Current Gastroenterology Reports 03/2004; 6(1):60-5. DOI:10.1007/s11894-004-0027-0
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developmental alcohol (EtOH) exposure produces long-term changes in the photic regulation of rat circadian behavior. Because entrainment of circadian rhythms to 24-hr light/dark cycles is mediated by phase shifting or resetting the clock mechanism, we examined whether developmental EtOH exposure also alters the phase-shifting effects of light pulses on the rat activity rhythm.
Artificially reared Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to EtOH (4.5 g/kg/day) or an isocaloric milk formula (gastrostomy control; GC) on postnatal days 4 to 9. At 2 months of age, rats from the EtOH, GC, and suckle control groups were housed individually, and wheel-running behavior was continuously recorded first in a 12-hr light/12-hr dark photoperiod for 10 to 14 days and thereafter in constant darkness (DD). Once the activity rhythm was observed to stably free-run in DD for at least 14 days, animals were exposed to a 15-min light pulse at either 2 or 10 hr after the onset of activity [i.e., circadian time (CT) 14 or 22, respectively], because light exposure at these times induces maximal phase delays or advances of the rat activity rhythm.
EtOH-treated rats were distinguished by robust increases in their phase-shifting responses to light. In the suckle control and GC groups, light pulses shifted the activity rhythm as expected, inducing phase delays of approximately 2 hr at CT 14 and advances of similar amplitude at CT 22. In contrast, the same light stimulus produced phase delays at CT 14 and advances at CT 22 of longer than 3 hr in EtOH-treated rats. The mean phase delay at CT 14 and advance at CT 22 in EtOH rats were significantly greater (p < 0.05) than the light-induced shifts observed in control animals.
The data indicate that developmental EtOH exposure alters the phase-shifting responses of the rat activity rhythm to light. This finding, coupled with changes in the circadian period and light/dark entrainment observed in EtOH-treated rats, suggests that developmental EtOH exposure may permanently alter the clock mechanism in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and its regulation of circadian behavior.
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 07/2004; 28(7):1020-7. DOI:10.1097/01.ALC.0000130807.21020.1B · 3.21 Impact Factor
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