Maternal morbidity associated with cesarean delivery without labor compared with spontaneous onset of labor at term.
ABSTRACT To estimate the maternal morbidity associated with cesarean deliveries performed at term without labor compared with morbidity associated with spontaneous labor.
A 14-year, population-based, cohort study (1988-2001) using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database compared maternal outcomes in nulliparous women at term undergoing spontaneous labor for planned vaginal delivery with singleton, cephalic presentation and nulliparous women delivering by cesarean without labor.
From a total of 18,435 pregnancies, which satisfied inclusion and exclusion criteria, 721 were cesarean deliveries without labor. There were no maternal deaths or transfers for intensive care. There was no difference in wound infection, blood transfusion, or intraoperative trauma. Women undergoing cesarean deliveries without labor were more likely to have puerperal febrile morbidity (relative risk [RR] 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 4.5; P=.03), but were less likely to have early postpartum hemorrhage (RR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4, 0.9; P=.01) compared with women entering spontaneous labor. Subgroup analyses of maternal outcomes in women delivering by spontaneous and assisted vaginal delivery and cesarean delivery in labor were also performed. The highest morbidity was found in the assisted vaginal delivery and cesarean delivery in labor groups.
The increased maternal morbidity in elective cesarean delivery compared with spontaneous onset of labor is limited to puerperal febrile morbidity. Maternal morbidity is increased after assisted vaginal delivery and cesarean delivery in labor compared with cesarean delivery without labor.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To estimate the population risks of maternal and infant complications with the birth of macrosomic (at least 4000 g) compared with normal weight infants. Term, singleton infants were identified from the state of Washington's birth event records database for 1990. Diagnosis codes from the Internal Classification of Diseases (9th revision) were used to identify delivery method and previously defined complications. We adjusted for maternal demographic and clinical factors using multivariable logistic regression to derive the risk of each maternal and infant complication. The incidence of macrosomia was 13% (8815 of 66,086). Vaginal birth of macrosomic infants was associated with low incidence of complications except for shoulder dystocia (11%) and postpartum hemorrhage (5%). Postpartum infection was the most common complication for women who had cesarean delivery after labor (5%), and complications for women who had cesarean without labor were rare (less than 3%). Neonatal complications were rare. Among infants with shoulder dystocia, the risks of asphyxia (adjusted relative risk [RR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6, 2.3), birth trauma (RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.2, 1.6), long-bone injury (RR 1.2, 95% CI 0.6, 2.4), seizures (RR 1.0, 95% CI 0.0, 25.0), and facial palsy (RR 2.2, 95% CI 0.2, 44.4) were not significantly different for macrosomic and normal weight infants; however, macrosomic infants had a significantly increased risk of Erb palsy (RR 3.5, 95% CI 1.8, 7.5). This population-based study showed that most macrosomic infants are delivered vaginally with low rates of maternal and neonatal complications. Macrosomic infants have higher rates of Erb palsy, but similar rates of other serious complications of shoulder dystocia when compared with normal weight infants.Obstetrics and Gynecology 11/1998; 92(4 Pt 1):507-13. · 4.80 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To correlate clinical variables (gestational age, severe pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, history of previous cesarean sections, fetal distress, perinatal mortality, postpartum anemia, Apgar score < or = 3 at 1 minute and < or = 7 at 5 minutes, and instrumental delivery) with postpartum endometritis (PPE) and wound infection. Descriptive cross-sectional study of the outcome of 75,947 term and preterm singleton deliveries; vaginally and by cesarean section from 1989-1997. The prevalence of PPE after vaginal deliveries was 0.17% (120/68,273). Gestational age of less than 37 weeks, severe pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal distress, instrumental deliveries, neonatal mortality, postpartum anemia, and Apgar scores of < 7 after 5 minutes were significantly associated with PPE. Gestational diabetes and an Apgar score of < 3 after 1 minute showed similar frequency with and without PPE. The prevalence of PPE after cesarean section was 2.63% (202/7,677). Preterm cesarean sections, history of previous cesarean sections, anemia, and low Apgar scores were seen more frequently with PPE than without. The incidence of cesarean delivery with gestational diabetes mellitus, fetal distress, and perinatal mortality was similar in presence and absence of PPE. The rate of wound infection after cesarean section was 3.97% (318/7,995). Gestational diabetes mellitus, history of previous cesarean deliveries, and low Apgar scores were significantly more frequent with than without wound infection. Gestational age, severe pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal distress, perinatal mortality, and postpartum anemia were not associated with wound infection. Awareness of the aforementioned associations may prevent and shorten hospital stay by early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2000; 8(2):77-82.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. The aim of the study was to find the incidence and clinical implications of peripartum hysterectomy in our department and to identify women at risk to improve treatment before resorting to hysterectomy.Material and methods. In the period 1981–1996, cases with peripartum hysterectomy among a total of 70,546 deliveries in our department were identified from three different sources. The clinical variables were obtained by review of the maternal records.Results. In the study period, 11 cases, representing an incidence of 0.2 peripartum hysterectomies per 1000 deliveries was found. Eight women had a cesarean section and three women had a spontaneous vaginal delivery. Six of the patients had previous operation on the uterus. The indication for hysterectomy was atony in seven, suspected rupture in two, placenta accreta in one and DIC in one woman. The maternal morbidity was substantial as the mean number of transfusions given was 15 units (range 7–24), and the mean hospitalization time was 15 days (range 11–29). There was no maternal mortality, but one infant died due to asphyxia caused by placental abruption.Conclusions. The incidence of peripartum hysterectomy was low, but the condition is serious with significant maternal morbidity.Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 04/2001; 80(5):409 - 412. · 1.85 Impact Factor