Central role of interleukin-6 in burn induced stimulation of hepatic amino acid transport.
ABSTRACT Burn injury produces a marked and prolonged hypermetabolic state, which is characterized by accelerated hepatic amino acid metabolism and negative nitrogen balance. The effect of burn injury on hepatocyte transport of glutamine, a key substrate in gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis, was examined following the administration of a full thickness 20% total body surface scald injury. The burn injury was induced in wild-type mice, as well as two types of knockout mice: a CD-14 knockout and an interleukin-6 (IL-6) knockout. In both the wild-type and CD-14 knockout mice a latent and profound 2-fold increase in hepatocyte glutamine transport was seen. In contrast, hepatocytes isolated from IL-6 knockout mice failed to show an induction of glutamine transport after burn injury. Hepatocytes isolated from burned wild-type and CD-14 knockout mice produced significantly higher levels of IL-6 as compared to hepatocytes isolated from sham burned mice. Histologic analysis of skin isolated from wild-type mice showed a robust inflammatory response whereas skin from IL-6 deficient mice showed minimal inflammation and decreased granulation tissue. The results of this study suggest that IL-6 may play a key role in the stimulation of hepatic glutamine transport following burn injury.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: We aimed to determine whether the severity of inhalation injury evokes an immune response measurable at the systemic level and to further characterize the balance of systemic pro- and anti-inflammation early after burn and inhalation injury. BACKGROUND:: Previously, we reported that the pulmonary inflammatory response is enhanced with worse grades of inhalation injury and that those who die of injuries have a blunted pulmonary immune profile compared with survivors. METHODS:: From August 2007 to June 2011, bronchoscopy was performed on 80 patients admitted to the burn intensive care unit when smoke inhalation was suspected. Of these, inhalation injury was graded into 1 of 5 categories (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4), with grade 0 being the absence of visible injury and grade 4 corresponding to massive injury. Plasma was collected at the time of bronchoscopy and analyzed for 28 immunomodulating proteins via multiplex bead array or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS:: The concentrations of several plasma immune mediators were increased with worse inhalation injury severity, even after adjusting for age and % total body surface area (TBSA) burn. These included interleukin (IL)-1RA (P = 0.002), IL-6 (P = 0.002), IL-8 (P = 0.026), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (P = 0.002), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (P = 0.007). Differences in plasma immune mediator concentrations in surviving and deceased patients were also identified. Briefly, plasma concentrations of IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, eotaxin, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 were higher in deceased patients than in survivors (P < 0.05 for all), whereas IL-4 and IL-7 were lower (P < 0.05). After adjusting for the effects of age, % TBSA burn, and inhalation injury grade, plasma IL-1RA remained significantly associated with mortality (odds ratio, 3.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-9.44). Plasma IL-1RA also correlated with % TBSA burn, inhalation injury grade, fluid resuscitation, Baux score, revised Baux score, Denver score, and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. CONCLUSIONS:: The severity of smoke inhalation injury has systemically reaching effects, which argue in favor of treating inhalation injury in a graded manner. In addition, several plasma immune mediators measured early after injury were associated with mortality. Of these, IL-1RA seemed to have the strongest correlation with injury severity and outcomes measures, which may explain the blunted pulmonary immune response we previously found in nonsurvivors.Annals of surgery 11/2012; · 7.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infection is the most common and most serious complication of a major burn related to burn size. Recent studies have demonstrated that statin treatment can decrease mortality in murine or human sepsis. In the current study mice were anesthetized and subjected to a dorsal 30% TBSA scald burn. Simvastatin or placebo were administered by intraperitoneal injection once daily or every 12h. On post burn day 7 cecal ligation and puncture with a 21-gauge needle (CLP) was performed under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, the two different dosing schedules were continued and survival was monitored. In other groups of mice, interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in blood were measured in mice at 7 days after injury. A simvastatin dependent improvement in survival was observed in the burn sepsis model. This protection was found to be dose and time dependent. In addition, statin treatment reduced the elevation in IL-6 levels of mice burned 7 days previously. However, IL-6 levels in burned mice with or without statin treatment were elevated by CLP to the same degree. The results of these studies suggest that statin treatment reduces mortality in mice with burns and CLP and that this effect may not be mediated via IL-6 levels.Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 03/2011; 37(2):222-6. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: After severe burn injury and other major traumas, glucose tolerance tests demonstrate delayed glucose disposal. This 'diabetes of injury' could be explained by insulin deficiency, and several studies have shown that soon after trauma (ebb phase) insulin concentrations are reduced in the face of hyperglycemia. After resuscitation of trauma patients (flow phase), β-cell responsiveness normalizes and plasma insulin levels are appropriate or even higher than expected, however, glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia persist. In the acute care setting, several approaches have been used for treating insulin resistance, including insulin infusion, propranolol and glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1). Recently, it was demonstrated that a tetrapeptide with antioxidant properties D-Arg-Dmt-Lys-Phe-NH2 (SS31), but not its inactive analogue Phe-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2 (SS20) attenuates insulin resistance in mice maintained on a high fat diet. In this report the effects of SS31 and SS20 on burn-induced insulin resistance was studied in mice. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed in 4 groups of 6 mice with thermal injury with or without pre-treatment with SS31 or SS20 and sham controls. In addition, biodistribution of 18FDG was measured in burned mice with and without SS31 treatment and shams (subsets of these animals were also studied by µPET). For comparison purposes, groups of 6 cold-stressed mice with and without SS31 treatment were also studied. The results of these studies demonstrate that SS31 but not SS20 ameliorated burn-induced insulin resistance. In addition, SS31 treatment resulted in marked reduction in the increased 18FDG uptake by brown adipose tissue (BAT) in burned but not cold-stressed animals; suggesting that the stressors act by different mechanisms. Overall, these studies confirmed that SS31 can be used to reverse burn-induced insulin resistance and provide a firm pre-clinical basis for future clinical trials of SS31 for the treatment of insulin resistance in patients with burn injury.International Journal of Molecular Medicine 10/2011; 28(4):589-94. · 1.88 Impact Factor