Biochemical and molecular characterization of two phosphatidic acid-selective phospholipase A1s, mPA-PLA1alpha and mPA-PLA1beta.
ABSTRACT We have identified a novel phospholipase A1, named mPA-PLA1beta, which is specifically expressed in human testis and characterized it biochemically together with previously identified mPA-PLA1alpha. The sequence of mPAPLA1beta encodes a 460-amino acid protein containing a lipase domain with significant homology to the previously identified phosphatidic acid (PA)-selective PLA1, mPA-PLA1alpha. mPA-PLA1beta contains a short lid and deleted beta9 loop, which are characteristics of PLA1 molecules in the lipase family, and is a member of a subfamily in the lipase family that includes mPA-PLA1alpha and phosphatidylserine-specific PLA1. Both mPA-PLA1beta and mPA-PLA1alpha recombinant proteins exhibited PA-specific PLA1 activity and were vanadate-sensitive. When mPAPLA1beta-expressing cells were treated with bacterial phospholipase D, the cells produced lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In both mPA-PLA1alpha and beta-expressing cells, most of the PA generated by the phospholipase D (PLD) treatment was converted to LPA, whereas in control cells it was converted to diacylglycerol. When expressed in HeLa cells most mPA-PLA1alpha protein was recovered from the cell supernatant. By contrast, mPA-PLA1beta was recovered almost exclusively from cells. Consistent with this observation, we found that mPA-PLA1beta has higher affinity to heparin than mPA-PLA1alpha. We also found that the membrane-associated mPA-PLA1s were insoluble in solubilization by 1% Triton X-100 and were detected in Triton X-100-insoluble buoyant fractions of sucrose gradients. The present study raises the possibility that production of LPA by mPA-PLA1alpha and -beta occurs on detergent-resistant membrane domains of the cells where they compete with lipid phosphate phosphatase for PA.
- Journal of Investigative Dermatology 04/2012; 132(8):2093-5. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Natural mutations in the LIPH gene were shown to be responsible for hair growth defects in humans and for the rex short hair phenotype in rabbits. In this species, we identified a single nucleotide deletion in LIPH (1362delA) introducing a stop codon in the C-terminal region of the protein. We investigated the expression of LIPH between normal coat and rex rabbits during critical fetal stages of hair follicle genesis, in adults and during hair follicle cycles. Transcripts were three times less expressed in both fetal and adult stages of the rex rabbits than in normal rabbits. In addition, the hair growth cycle phases affected the regulation of the transcription level in the normal and mutant phenotypes differently. LIPH mRNA and protein levels were higher in the outer root sheath (ORS) than in the inner root sheath (IRS), with a very weak signal in the IRS of rex rabbits. In vitro transfection shows that the mutant protein has a reduced lipase activity compared to the wild type form. Our results contribute to the characterization of the LIPH mode of action and confirm the crucial role of LIPH in hair production.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e30073. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present review aims to systematically and critically analyze the current knowledge on phospholipases and their role in physiological and pathological mineralization undertaken by mineralization competent cells. Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in biological mineralization. The physiological mechanisms of mineralization are likely to take place in tissues other than in bones and teeth under specific pathological conditions. For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. Osteoporosis-a bone resorbing disease-and rheumatoid arthritis originating from the inflammation in the synovium are also affected by cellular lipid metabolism. The focus is on the lipid metabolism due to the effects of dietary lipids on bone health. These and other phenomena indicate that phospholipases may participate in bone remodelling as evidenced by their expression in smooth muscle cells, in bone forming osteoblasts, chondrocytes and in bone resorbing osteoclasts. Among various enzymes involved, phospholipases A or A, phospholipase C, phospholipase D, autotaxin and sphingomyelinase are engaged in membrane lipid remodelling during early stages of mineralization and cell maturation in mineralization-competent cells. Numerous experimental evidences suggested that phospholipases exert their action at various stages of mineralization by affecting intracellular signaling and cell differentiation. The lipid metabolites-such as arachidonic acid, lysophospholipids, and sphingosine-1-phosphate are involved in cell signaling and inflammation reactions. Phospholipases are also important members of the cellular machinery engaged in matrix vesicle (MV) biogenesis and exocytosis. They may favour mineral formation inside MVs, may catalyse MV membrane breakdown necessary for the release of mineral deposits into extracellular matrix (ECM), or participate in hydrolysis of ECM. The biological functions of phospholipases are discussed from the perspective of animal and cellular knockout models, as well as disease implications, development of potent inhibitors and therapeutic interventions.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2013; 14(3):5036-129. · 2.46 Impact Factor