Dopamine in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Controls Genotype-Dependent Effects of Amphetamine on Mesoaccumbens Dopamine Release and Locomotion
ABSTRACT Mice of background DBA/2J are hyporesponsive to the behavioral effects of D-amphetamine in comparison with the widely exploited murine background C57BL/6J. In view of the important role of dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) regarding the behavioral effects of psychostimulants, we tested the hypothesis of an inverse relationship between mesocortical and mesoaccumbens DA functioning in the two backgrounds. Systemic D-amphetamine induces a sustained increase in DA release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mpFC) accompanied by a poor increase in the NAc in mice of the low-responsive DBA/2J background, as shown by intracerebral microdialysis in freely moving animals. The opposite occurs in C57BL/6J mice, which show low prefrontal cortical DA outflow accompanied by high accumbal extracellular DA. Moreover, the DBA/2J background showed lower locomotor activity than C57BL/6J mice following D-amphetamine challenge. Selective DA depletion in the mpFC of DBA/2J mice produced a clear-cut increase in D-amphetamine-induced DA outflow in the NAc as well as locomotor activity that reached levels similar to those observed in C57BL/6J mice. Finally, local infusion of D-amphetamine by reverse microdialysis produced a similar increase in extracellular DA in both the mpFC and the NAc of DBA/2J mice. This finding points to similar transporter-related mechanisms in the two brain areas and supports the hypothesis that low accumbal DA release induced by systemic D-amphetamine in the DBA/2J background is determined by the inhibitory action of prefrontal cortical DA. The present results indicate that genotype-dependent susceptibility to addictive properties of D-amphetamine involves unbalanced DA transmission in the mesocorticolimbic system.
SourceAvailable from: Yosefu Arime[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a promising candidate susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Several previous studies reported that mice with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced L100P mutation in Disc1 showed some schizophrenia-related behavioral phenotypes. This line originally carried several thousands of ENU-induced point mutations in the C57BL/6 J strain and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the DBA/2 J inbred strain. To investigate the effect of Disc1 L100P, background mutations and SNPs on phenotypic characterization, we performed behavioral analyses to better understand phenotypes of Disc1 L100P mice and comprehensive genetic analyses using whole-exome resequencing and SNP panels to map ENU-induced mutations and strain-specific SNPs, respectively. We found no differences in spontaneous or methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity, sociability or social novelty preference among Disc1 L100P/L100P, L100P/+ mutants and wild-type littermates. Whole-exome resequencing of the original G1 mouse identified 117 ENU-induced variants, including Disc1 L100P per se. Two females and three males from the congenic L100P strain after backcrossing to C57BL/6 J were deposited to RIKEN BioResource Center in 2008. We genotyped them with DBA/2 J x C57BL/6 J SNPs and found a number of the checked SNPs still remained. These results suggest that causal attribution of the discrepancy in behavioral variance phenotypes to the Disc1 L100P mutant mouse line existing among different research groups needs to be cautiously investigated in further study by taking into account the effect(s) of other ENU-induced mutations and/or SNPs from DBA/2 J.Behavioral and Brain Functions 12/2014; 10(1):45. DOI:10.1186/1744-9081-10-45 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aberrations in the elaboration of both aversive and rewarding stimuli characterize several psychopathologies including anxiety, depression and addiction. Several studies suggest that different neurotrasmitters, within the corticolimbic system, are critically involved in the processing of positive and negative stimuli. Individual differences in this system, depending on genotype, have been shown to act as a liability factor for different psychopathologies. Inbred mouse strains are commonly used in preclinical studies of normal and pathological behaviors. In particular, C57BL/6J (C57) and DBA/2J (DBA) strains have permitted to disclose the impact of different genetic backgrounds over the corticolimbic system functions. Here, we summarize the main findings collected over the years in our laboratory, showing how the genetic background plays a critical role in modulating amminergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in prefrontal-accumbal-amygdala system response to different rewarding and aversive experiences, as well as to stress response. Finally, we propose a top-down model for the response to rewarding and aversive stimuli in which amminergic transmission in prefrontal cortex (PFC) controls accumbal and amygdala neurotransmitter response.Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 02/2015; 8. DOI:10.3389/fnsys.2014.00207