[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Marine scientists have made many recent advances in understanding the connections between the structure of benthic communities, replenishment of populations through dispersal processes, and interactions with the nearshore water mass. In this review, some of the themes and models relating to these processes and interactions are discussed. Benthic–pelagic coupling models are in the early stages of development, but encompass oceanic processes such as upwelling and downwelling, the transport of larvae and their arrival back to shore to settle. Most current knowledge of these processes is based on a few taxa, especially barnacles and mussels. This is discussed with reference and comparison to macroalgae, which dominate much of the intertidal zone on temperate rocky shores, and have quite different life histories, transport and settlement processes. The role of key, habitat-dominating species is discussed, particularly their early life histories, with reference to the differences in community composition, nearshore dynamics and settlement processes in different countries. Finally, some suggestions are made for future work to fill gaps in understanding about rocky shore communities.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 03/2004; 300(1-300):309-342. DOI:10.1016/j.jembe.2004.01.001 · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The emergence of an global cyberinfrastructure is rapidly increasing the ability of scientists to produce, manage, and use
data, leading to new understanding and modes of scientific inquiry that depend on broader data access. As research becomes
increasingly global, data intensive, and multifaceted, it is imperative to address national and international data access
and sharing issues systematically in a policy arena that transcends national jurisdictions. The
of this Policy Forum summarize key findings of an international group that studied these issues on behalf of the OECD, and
argue that an international framework of principles and guidelines for data access is needed to better realize this potential.
They provide a framework for locating and analyzing where improvements can be made in data access regimes, and highlight several
topics that require further examination to better inform future policies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently we have observed a growing intensity of scientific data and information and a deepening diversity of knowledge base required for innovation. As the same time, intellectual property rights regimes are increasing tightened, and the privatization of data, information, and knowledge is widely diffused. This paper is a preliminary attempt to address technical, economic, legal, and institutional conditions for establishing and maintaining information commons and to discuss how to utilize it for stimulating collaboration and innovation. The characteristics of different types of information commons in various fields need to be examined, including the mechanisms of creating and maintaining information commons, incentive structures of relevant actors, speed of information and knowledge creation, fragmentation of information and knowledge, and scope and opportunities for combination of information. It will be important to establish sectoral systems of information commons for science for policy making and institutional design.
Science, Technology and Innovation Policy, 2007 Atlanta Conference on; 11/2007
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